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BIOL 1117 (81)

Skeletal System

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BIOL 1117
Christopher Richardson

L14-The Skeletal System 10/7/13 • Overview of the Skeleton o Two regions of the skeleton  axial skeleton – forms the central supporting axis of the body • skull, auditory ossicles, vertebral column, and thoracic cage (ribs and sternum)  appendicular skeleton – includes the bones of the upper limb and pectoral girdle, and the bones of the lower limb and pelvic girdle o number of bones  206 in typical adult skeleton  More bones at birth but some will fuse as we become adults o Bones have a wide variety of anatomical features • Anatomical Features of Bones o Anatomical features  projections/extensions: crest (narrow ridge), line (elongated ridge), processes (bony prominence); such as spine (narrow process) and trochanter (massive process on femur)  depressions: fossa (shallow basin) and sulcus (groove)  passages: canal (passageway), sinus (air-filled space) and foramen (hole)  articular surfaces: head (expanded end of bone), facet (flat articular surface), and condyle (rounded knob) • The Skull o skull is the most complex part of the skeleton o 22 bones joined together by sutures o 8 cranial bones surround cranial cavity which encloses the brain o other cavities: orbits, nasal cavity, buccal cavity, middle-, and inner ear cavities, and paranasal sinuses o paranasal sinuses: frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary  **All sinus bones help contribute to forming the orbit  These sinuses are connected to the nasal cavity which is lined with mucous membrane and filled with air. o foramina: holes that allow passage for nerves and blood vessels • Cranial Fossa o cranium (braincase) – protects the brain
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