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BIOL 2321 (1)

Notes from Jan 29 Lecture, Including "Microbe Talk" notes

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Northeastern University
BIOL 2321
Jacqueline Piret

D. radiodurans gram positive bacteria resistant to radiation, UV, genotoxic chemicals, desiccation and severe acceleration and deceleration forces most DNA damage tolerant organism ever identified "Deinococcus radiodurans" Found in elephant, cow, and llama feces and in dry soil possible precursor to life on earth ability to survive radiation: radiation leads to reactive free rdicals that damage DNA by binding with an incorrect atom genetic material is fragmented with breaks in both strangs How does it repair DNA? redundancy in genetic code-- therefore mutated genes often have undamaged counterparts occurs in extended synthesis dependent single strand DNA annealing RecA protein mediated double strand break repair Life Savor Hypothesis Influence on life-- can be used in bioremediation at polluted sites with the insertion of genes from pollutant degrading bacteria into their cells NASA is interested in "Conan the Bacterium"-- possibly able to clean up radiation on Mars or create medicine for astronauts gram + polyextremophile can survive 3000x radiation of what people can can be used to clean radioactive supersites possibly from Mars Yersinia pestis Coccobacillus Facilitative anaerobic Gram negative, bipolar staining (looks like a safety pin) Faculative intracellular (optional parasite) Parasitic and invades macrophages and some other cells, allowing it resistance to phagocytosis Bubonic plague, Septicemic plague, and pneumonic plague: Bubonic plague: lymphatic system infection (flea bites transmission), inflamed lymph nodes, treatment should be given within 24 hours or death will occur Septicemic: rodent and insect bites, causes sepsis, makes body unable to control clotting, causes black/red patches. 100% death rate without antibiotics Pneumonic plague: respiratory system; caused when other kinds spread, or can travel person- person Enzootic cycle- once rats and rodents die, the infected fleas etc bite humans In 1894, Kitasato and Yersen tried to find the pathogen—Kitasato’s samples were contaminated with pneumococci whereas Yersen’s sample (taken from bubos) was pure The Plague still exists in Southwest United States in populations of ground squirrels (about 7 cases/year), also in India, Vietnam, Madagascar, Africa. Streptomycin is the “gold standard” of treatme
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