Kuga Chapter 15 from Book

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Department
Chemistry & Chemical Biology
Course
CHEM 1101
Professor
Sanga Kuga
Semester
Spring

Description
• Chemical Kinetics: o Chemical Kinetics:  Study of rates at which reactants/products change during a  reaction.  Includes study of factors that affect rate of reactions, and steps  involved as a reaction proceeds from reactants to products. o Reaction Rate:  The change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit of  time.  The units on reaction rate are concentration per unit of time, e.g.,  M/s • Writing Rate Law Expressions for Reactions: o 2 NO + O  → 22NO 2  Rate law expression has the form:  Rate = k [NO]  [O ]2n • Integrated Rate Laws: o Deriving a rate law equation for the reaction X ® Y + Z and the value of k  all from a single experiment in which the change in the  concentration of reactant “X” is  determined at various times.  o Then: 1. Plot [X] v. t; if straight, reaction is zero order 2. Plot ln [X] v. t; if straight, reaction is 1st order Slope = ­k 3. Plot 1/ [X] v. t; if straight, reaction is 2  order Slope = k • Half­Life (t½): o For a first­order reaction: t  = 0.693/k   ½ • Pseudo­First Order Reactions: o All reactants but one are present at such high concentrations that they do  not change significantly during the course of reaction o Reaction rate is determined by the concentration of the limiting reactant. • Factors Affecting Reaction Rate: o Concentration of reactants:  Increased frequency of collisions.  Defined by rate law. o Energy of collisions:
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