Kuga Chapter 21 from Book

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Department
Chemistry & Chemical Biology
Course
CHEM 1101
Professor
Sanga Kuga
Semester
Spring

Description
• Radioactive Decay: o 1 ­Order: N t n = 0.5       0  Where n = the number of half­lives. • Fusion: o Positron:  Particle with mass of an electron but with a positive charge. o Antimatter:  Particles that are charge opposites of normal subatomic particles  (e.g., electron / positron). o Collision of matter/antimatter particles results in annihilation; all mass  converted to energy in the form of γ­rays (i.e. positron and electron come  together and then seize to exist ­> produce high energy gamma rays,  matter ­> energy) • Fusion Reactors: o High­temperature reactions between deuterium and tritium (T = 1.5 × 10   K) o  Neutrons produced initiate other reactions • Tokamak: o High­temperature reactions produce an incandescent plasma which is  contained by strong magnetic fields.  • Nuclear Binding Energies: o Binding Energy (BE):  The energy released when nucleons combine to form a nucleus.  Depends on “mass defect.” o Mass Defect (Δm):  Difference between the mass (in kg) of a stable nucleus and the  ind2vidual nucleons that comprise it2 o E = (Δm)c    (Remember: 1 joule = 1 kg∙(m/s) ) • Stability of Nuclei: o Belt of stability:  Region on a graph  of the number of neutrons vs number of protons that includes all  stable nuclei. • Predicting Modes of Decay: o Nuclides above the belt of stability:  Neutron rich; undergo β­decay (loses beta particle). 14 14 0 6C → 7N + -1 o Nuclides below the belt of stability:  Neutron poor; undergo positron­decay (positron emission ­> out  comes positive charge) or electron capture. 11 11 0 C → B + β 6 5 1 11 0 11 6C + -1e → 5 B • Nuclear Fission: o Nuclear Fission:  Nuclear reaction in which a heavy nucleus splits into two lighter  nuclei; usually accompanied by release of one or more neutrons. o Chain Reaction:  A self­sustaining series of fission reactions in which neutrons  released when nuclei split apart initiate addition
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