Lecture 14

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Department
Chemistry & Chemical Biology
Course
CHEM 1214
Professor
Thomas Gilbert
Semester
Spring

Description
Lecture 12 (2/4/13) • Types of Equilibria: o Homogeneous equilibria:  Equilibria involving reactants and products in the same phase.  Mostly gas phase in Ch. 16; aqueous solutions in Ch. 17 o Heterogeneous equilibria:  Equilibria involving reactants and products in more than one  phase, e.g., decomposition of a solid that produces a gas. • Heterogeneous Equilibria: o CaCO (s)3⇌ CaO(s) + CO (g) 2 o Concentrations of solids are constant at a given  temperature:       Density (g/L)         = mol = (M) Molar mass (g/mol)       L • Le Châtelier’s Principle: o “A system at equilibrium responds to a stress in such a way that it relieves  that stress.” o Factors that will change the relative rates of forward/reverse reactions, or  change the value of Q compared to K, will cause a shift in the position of  equilibrium. • Concentration Stress: o H O(2) + CO(g) ⇌ H (g) 2 CO (g) 2 o Remove CO (g):2  Rate of reverse reaction decreases; reaction proceeds in forward  direction to establish new equilibrium. o Q compared to K:  Removing CO , 2 > Q; reaction shifts
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