Class Notes: 2.3.14
1. Nucleotides and Nucleic Acid
DNA: deoxyriboNA, contains genetic blueprint
Has a double helix structure. The outside is made out of a sugar
phosphate backbone to provide structure. The inside has base pairs
AGTC, that hold the coding material. It has a major and minor groove.
RNA: riboNA: Transcribes coded genetic information in DNA for cell protein
There are 5 amino acids that make up the base pairs of DNA and RNA.
Thymine, Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Uracil.
DNA includes thymine, adenine, guanine, and cytosine.
In RNA, thymine is replaced with uracil.
To perform protein synthesis, there is Transcription and translation.
In transcription, DNA is opened and mRNA is created to complement
In translation, the ribosome works to create strings of amino acids.
After every 3 chains of mRNA, the ribosome grabs an amino acid.
2. Other Important organic molecules: Coenzymes
ATP: Adenine triphosphate. It is the universal energy carrier in all cells. The
energy released upon hydrolysis of ATP is used for the synthesis of cellular
macromolecules (proteins, lipids, polysaccharides).
3. Measuring Organics in Wastewater
Can measure with:
Volatile solids what’s combustible
Chemical oxygen demand the amount of oxygen needed to
chemically oxidize the OM, using a strong oxidizing agent (like
K2Cr2O7) instead of oxygen.
Total oxygen demand
Theoretical Oxygen Demand done with formula and calculator
Biochemical Oxygen Demand Put WW in bottle, put bugs in, calculate
how much o.m. has been oxidized by how much oxygen has been
consumed. Catalyzed by bugs not chemicals. This assumes all bugs