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Department
Civil & Environmental Engineer
Course
CIVE 7251
Professor
April Gu
Semester
Spring

Description
Lecture 2: The Microorganisms 1. Three Kingdoms a) Plants­ have cell walls, not actively motile, have chlorophyll, energy source   is photosynthesis.   b) Animals­ No chlorophyll in cells, get energy from organic materials.    c) Protists­ unicellular, lack differentiation of cells and tissues.  2. The Tree of Life   ­ Archaea is the closest to the beginning of life because they are at the   bottommost part of the tree.    ­RNA sequences tell where life falls on the tree.    ­The “String” is the lowest level of branches off of other branches.    ­In this class, we will mostly be studying bacteria and some eucaryota, not   archaea.  3. Microorganisms can be Eucaryotic, Procaryotic, or Viruses.    ­Eucaryotes have a true nucleus with a membrane   ­Procaryotes have no nuclear membrane, all DNA is intertwined within the      cell. All bacteria are procaryotes.    ­Viruses are non­cellular.  4. Sizes   ­Bacteria are 1­10 micrometers in size.    ­Viruses are smaller, at about 100 nanometers.   ­Chloroplasts are about the same size as bacteria 5. PROKARYOTES
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