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Lecture 3

CLTR 1501 Lecture 3: Youth in France

7 Pages
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Department
Culture
Course Code
CLTR 1501
Professor
Alice L.Sedar

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Youth in France
1. 2011 survey by Fonapol -> Sciences Pô about teenagers’ aspirations and
their dreams
Tangles many issues (taxes, immigration, sexuality)
Those who opposed: 16-29 years old
What is a good life for the French?
oStarting a family (significantly more important in France than
rest of Europe) 47%
oEarning a lot of money = 14%
oFeeling free = 18%
In France education is practically free compared to
America
Americans focus more on earning a lot of money
What does our generation hope to achieve in the next 15 years?
oWant to own a house or a flat = 68% (world record)
Relates back to wanting a family and wanting to own
real estate
oHaving children
Relates back to the importance of family
oWill teach their children to be independent = 12%
Relating back to obedience
Obedient at home but disobedient outside in cases of
social justice
oIt’s acceptable to break the law to fight for justice in society =
57%
oAgainst wearing religious symbols at work = 71%
oFamily first, nationality second
French youth is among the most pessimistic
Half against & half for globalization
oHalf think it’s an opportunity and half think it’s doomsdays
oThose who think it’s an opportunity, that average is much
lower compared to all of Europe
oThe less qualified you are, the older you get, and when it
relates to our globalization, the more you are against
globalization
Against it because they’re not prepared (public
schools)
2. Summary of the educational system in France (high school and college)
1830s: boys had to go to school so that they can learn manners
and rules, etc.
1880s: young girls could now go to high school but didn’t have the
same curriculum as the boys until 1923
The main focus in high school until WWII was humanities because
the intellect was important
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oProblem: it was the children whose parents had the means
and therefore could go to college afterwards and get a job
via parents’ connections
oBut those who were not as lucky didn’t have anything to do
with their high school diploma
After WWII, when communists came into power, there was a will to
get more people from diverse backgrounds into the system to
democratize the system; did this for 3 reasons:
oSwitched the curriculum from humanities to maths and
sciences
Believed it would open the gate to more students
Many intellectuals, writers, politicians discredited
themselves due to the Vichy government
Democratize the education and to train scientists
because they wanted to modernize France
The Cold War; Russia was going full blast with
scientific developments therefore France wanted to
provide the country with people who could also
defend the country using technology
Despite these things, in 1964, Pierre Bourdieu
said that “only 1% of young people coming
from modest backgrounds got to higher
education (BAC)” therefore the system has
failed
Mid 80s: François Mitterrand realized that the BAC was not enough
for all students therefore went from only having 5 different types to
25 types
oBelieved that opening up the number of different BACs for
students would enable the students to choose something
they can succeed in so that they be able to go to college
oThey wanted at least 80% of high school students to pass
with the BAC
oPublic educational schools’ teachers were not prepared to
teach students in such diverse backgrounds
oUniversities were suddenly flooded with students and the
means of the university put a strain on the professors,
students, etc.
oProfessors who were teaching in higher education in public
universities continued to teach as if they had a minority of
elite students
Result: only 40% of people graduated because most
of them dropped out
The way they were taught was completely
disconnected from reality
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Description
Youth in France 1. 2011 survey by Fonapol -> Sciences Pô about teenagers’ aspirations and their dreams  Tangles many issues (taxes, immigration, sexuality)  Those who opposed: 16-29 years old  What is a good life for the French? o Starting a family (significantly more important in France than rest of Europe) 47% o Earning a lot of money = 14% o Feeling free = 18%  In France education is practically free compared to America  Americans focus more on earning a lot of money  What does our generation hope to achieve in the next 15 years? o Want to own a house or a flat = 68% (world record)  Relates back to wanting a family and wanting to own real estate o Having children  Relates back to the importance of family o Will teach their children to be independent = 12%  Relating back to obedience  Obedient at home but disobedient outside in cases of social justice o It’s acceptable to break the law to fight for justice in society = 57% o Against wearing religious symbols at work = 71% o Family first, nationality second  French youth is among the most pessimistic  Half against & half for globalization o Half think it’s an opportunity and half think it’s doomsdays o Those who think it’s an opportunity, that average is much lower compared to all of Europe o The less qualified you are, the older you get, and when it relates to our globalization, the more you are against globalization  Against it because they’re not prepared (public schools) 2. Summary of the educational system in France (high school and college)  1830s: boys had to go to school so that they can learn manners and rules, etc.  1880s: young girls could now go to high school but didn’t have the same curriculum as the boys until 1923  The main focus in high school until WWII was humanities because the intellect was important o Problem: it was the children whose parents had the means and therefore could go to college afterwards and get a job via parents’ connections o But those who were not as lucky didn’t have anything to do with their high school diploma  After WWII, when communists came into power, there was a will to get more people from diverse backgrounds into the system to democratize the system; did this for 3 reasons: o Switched the curriculum from humanities to maths and sciences  Believed it would open the gate to more students  Many intellectuals, writers, politicians discredited themselves due to the Vichy government  Democratize the education and to train scientists because they wanted to modernize France  The Cold War; Russia was going full blast with scientific developments therefore France wanted to provide the country with people who could also defend the country using technology  Despite these things, in 1964, Pierre Bourdieu said that “only 1% of young people coming from modest backgrounds got to higher education (BAC)” therefore the system has failed  Mid 80s: François Mitterrand realized that the BAC was not enough for all students therefore went from only having 5 different types to 25 types o Believed that opening up the number of different BACs for students would enable the students to choose something they can succeed in so that they be able to go to college o They wanted at least 80% of high school students to pass with the BAC o Public educational schools’ teachers were not prepared to teach students in such diverse backgrounds o Universities were suddenly flooded with students and the means of the university put a strain on the professors, students, etc. o Professors who were teaching in higher education in public universities continued to teach as if they had a minority of elite students  Result: only 40% of people graduated because most of them dropped out  The way they were taught was completely disconnected from reality  The professors held the idea that: a university is a place where you learn critical skills, where you learn how to think and learn about theories; they don’t want any interference with the outside world and no relationship with economics for some ideological reason  There’s not a constant exchange of information in college with the outside world and therefore it’s more like a fortress of information so many have a fear that they are not prepared for the real/outside world  Public universities are first egalitarian (no entrance exams so acceptance might be based on recommendations) meaning that everyone has an equal opportunity to get in but must really work hard to stay in; almost free tuition and easy access but real selection comes at the end of first/second year o Major problem that’s starting to change: no bridges between different departments/majors  Once you change majors, you have to start from the beginning again  Public education is extremely good no matter what but the difference between American and French is that the French don’t connect to the real world 3. Young, educated, and jobless (article)  Many French students against the revision of the labor code  Changes/revisions of the labor code o Diminishes the impact of the unions and their ability o Introduces more flexibility as to when to lay-off  Social protection is so high that companies rather not hire because then it’ll be so hard to lay-off somebody in an economic down-turn and it’s also very costly to hire anyone o There will no longer be agreement by sectors; therefore can’t negotiate within a company o If an agreement is reached within a company then it’ll supersede the pre-existing contract o In times of difficulty, the company can give workers lower salaries and ask for more hours and if the worker refuses then they can be laid off with no compensation  “Floating generation” that is an example of the failure of the system o 95% of new contracts are short-term o Therefore our generation basically goes from a short-term contract to the next  Those who are unskilled and who don’t normally go out onto the streets are now starting to join the national front  Those who protest are the ones who are still in college o “This new revision of the labor code has been pushed full force without any warning” o You shouldn’t touch the labor code because we prefer equality to liberty 4. How the labor laws plan to change not only regarding labor but also culture 5. CPE = first in Parliament’s contract (Contrat de Première Embauche) a. Stated that the company can hire someone under the age of 26 and if they aren’t happy with that person then they can let them off with
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