COMM 1101 Lecture 3: Communications chapter 1

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Communication Studies
COMM 1101
Thomas K.Nakayama

Communications chapter 1 • More communication options, so need more knowledge and skills • Becoming and effective communicator involves both understanding and the components and processes of communication and putting them in to practice The importance of studying human communication • Focuses exclusively on the exchange of messages to create meaning • Explore human interaction to increase our understanding of how people communicate and to help individuals improve their abilities to communicate in a wide variety of contexts • Classical era of western civilization with Socrates Plato and Aristotle writing about the important role of communication in politics, the courts, and learning • Communication is a complex activity influenced by factors including: cultural differences, cognitive abilities, and social norms o Can attain goals, establish relationships, develop one’s identity • Co-rumination o Talk about negative problems to friends over and over, not about solutions, can have a negative effect on people, esp women • Have to apply critical thinking skills to experiences to learn and improve from them Critical Thinking: A key to successful communication • one must become a critic to one’s own thoughts and behaviors o reflect on ideas before responding o steps ▪ identify the assertion or action ▪ ask what is the evidence for and against the assertion or action ▪ ask what does the bulk of evidence point to ▪ ask what other explanations or conclusions are possible ▪ continue to keep an open mind for new evidence and new ways of evaluating the assertion Advantages of studying human communication • communication used for o meeting people o develop professional and personal relationships o terminate dissatisfying ones • relationships develop as we communicate o steve duck o people redefine past relationship, create shared meaning for present, and project vision of future together • communication allows you to establish who you are to them o their communication creates an image of you are too • lil kim arrested for perjury- unethical and illegal communication o can be dangerous • persuasion, negotiation, resolution What is Human communication • communication o process in which people generate meaning through the exchange of verbal and nonverbal messages o influence of individual and societal forces and the role of culture o Synergetic Model?? Components of human communication • Complex process can require thought and planning • 7 basic components to consider in planning an interaction: o message creation o meaning creation o setting o participants o channels o noise o feedback • message creation o messages are building blocks of communication and the process of taking ideas and converting them into messages is encoding. Decoding is receiving a message and interpreting its meaning o importance of message determines decoding o when communicate we encode and exchange verbal and nonverbal messages- symbolic= symbol o verbal system-linguistic symbols-words o nonverbal-smiles, laughing, winks, vocal tones, hand gestures o communication is symbolic ▪ the symbols we use are (words and gestures) are arbitrary or without any inherent meaning. Rather their meaning derived as communicators employ agreed upon definitions o no intrinsic connection between most words and their meanings o humans must agree on meanings of words and they change over time ex gay o nonverbal and verbal meanings vary across cultures • Meaning creation o Goal of exchanging symbols is to create meaning- messages send and receive shape meaning o Experiences, belief and values change meaning o Each message has content meaning and relationship meaning ▪ Content-denotative and connotative meaning • D=concrete meaning of message-dictionary def • C=describes meanings suggested by or associated with the message and the emotions triggered by it ▪ Relationship- describes what the message conveys about the relationship between the parties o Shared meanings Shape families, communities, socities ▪ Politics, civil behavior, family, spirituality, good food, good home vs bad • Setting o The physical surroundings of a comm event make up its setting ▪ Includes location where comm occurs, environmental conditions, time of day or day of the week, and proximity of the communicators • Participants o Number of participants and their characteristics influence how the interaction unfolds ▪ More characteristics share-easier to communicate ▪ Relationship they have and history affects interaction o Moods and emotions communicators bring influence • Channels o Message transmitted through a channel o Face to face, written, electronic o Channel person selects to communicate a message can affect how the message is perceived and its impact on the relationship • Noise o Refers to any stimulus that can interfere with, or degrade the quality of a message o External signals ▪ Loud music and voices, distracting clothes and hair, uncomfortable temp o Internal ▪ Hunger, sleepiness o Semantic interference, which occurs when speaker use words do not know or use a familiar word in an unfamiliar way is another form of noise • Feedback o Response to a message o Lets a sender know if the message was received and how interpreted o Use info to shape next message A Model of Human Communication: the synergetic model • To understand complex processes- create visual models to show how all components of a process work together • First model o Depict comm as linear process that primarily involved the transfer of information from one person to another ▪ Sender encode receiver decode then reverse • Synergetic model o Transactional model that depicts comm as occurring when 2 or more people create meaning as they respond to each other and their environ o Important roles of individual and societal forces, contexts, and culture in the communication process • Synergy-describes when 2 or more elements work together to achieve something either one couldn’t have achieved on its own • Comm more than just the sum of its parts Communication is transactional • To say that comm is that capture the fact that: o Each participant is a sender and receiver at the same time o Meaning is created as people communicate together o Communication is an ongoing process o Previous communication events and relationships influence its meaning Communication is influenced by individual forces • Individual is a primary focus in communication o Separate individual forces/characteristics shape identity and communication o Demographic characteristics- age, race, ethnicity, nationality, gender/sex, sexual orientation, regional identity, socioeconomic class o Forces-personality, cognitive and physical ability ▪ Individual forces include your field of experience-education and experiences • Characteristics unique for people-so comm in dif ways o Some variations not deemed acceptable though Communication is influenced by societal forces • Some characteristics valued more than others o How society evaluates these characteristics affects how we talk to and about people who displays those less/more valued o The political, historical, ec
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