Intro to C++ January 6, 2014 - structs, classes, data members, const

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Electrical and Comp Engineering
EECE 2560
Waleed Meleis

Introduction to C++ January 6, 2014 Structs % contain data struct Rectangle { int height; % member int weidth; % member }; Rectangle r1; cin >> r1.height; cout << r1.width; Classes Contain data and functions class time24 { public: time24(int h=0, int m = 0); void addTime (int m); // a function that doesn’t return anything is void time24 duration (const time24 &t); // t is a reference to a time24 object that is a const. a parameter is const void readTime(); void writeTime() const; // a member function is const, which means the data member cannot be changed. int getHour() const; int getMinute() const; private: int hour; % data member int minute; % data member void normalizeTime (); %data member }; public members (function and data) are accessible anywhere a time24 object is accessible. —> the externally facing view of this object private members are only accessible to members of the class —> why shield “inward- facing” components of the code from the users of the class? Code can be extremely complex, sometimes we don’t want data/information changed within the code encapsulation - grouping of functions and data in an object information hiding - keeping the private members from users of the class int main () { time24 time1; time24 time2; time1.readTime(); time2.readTime(); time1.writeTime(); time2.writeTime(); time24 time3; time3 = time1.duration(time2); %version of “duration” that applies to time1 } void time24::normalizeTime() { int extraHours = minute/60; // scope of minute —> class // scope of extraHours — > normalizeTime() minute = minute % 60
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