Unit 11_Globalization and the Environment.pdf

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International Affairs
INTL 1101
Ioannis Livanis

INTL1101GlobalizationInternational Affairs Unit 11 Globalization and the Environment NotesEnvironmental Issues Independent variables that act all together all at oncemakes them difficult to deal withComplexityInterpenetration pollution down the roadTemporal and spatial uncertaintyWhat will happen in the future how much is it going to affect usIrreducibilityHolistic in nature we cannot approach only one part we have to consider them as a wholeCannot be reduced to their individual parts nature is naturally a networkSpontaneityThings tend to happen fast especially in environmental disastersCollectivityCollective action problems common pool resourcesProblematic incentive of freeriding based on who pollutes destined to be eradicatedEx Common pastures in England complete depletion of common pool resourcesRequires collective responseswithout everyones cooperation it can never workbe solvedGlobal cooling switched over very quickly to global warming first time we used satellite imaging to determine that the earths temperature hasnt changed in the years consideredFigured out that the world was indeed warming due to falling satellite projectionsUncertainty is at the core of environmental issuesHockey stick graph controversystudies on global warming wide variations in studies of the earths temperatureGlobal warming a natural phenomenon Is it really happening Yes whose fault is itPrecautionary principledo not allow scientific uncertainty to block you from doing something about it dont wait around for a disaster while you figure out if it is happening dont need scientific certainty to act World Trade Organization WTO recognizes this as a viable excuse to block global tradeAct then understand vs understand then act Europe vs USASustainable Economic DevelopmentLongterm economic growth depends on careful stewardship of the natural environmentEconomic growth that can be sustainedEnvironmentalistsLiberalizationunequal economic growth resources for debt competition race to the bottom increased pollution unsustainable consumption of resources political unrestFree tradeTrade promotes growth and alleviates povertyenvironmental benefitsElimination of trade barriersincreased value of resourcesEnvironmental progress is easier to achieve under conditions of prosperityDifference in understanding in the global North and global South 2
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