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Muscles of the Leg.docx

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Northeastern University
Physical Therapy
PT 5131
L Day

Muscles of the Leg (Posterior Compartment) Popliteus • Not part of the leg or thigh compartments o Found behind knee joint • PA: lateral condyle of femur; lateral meniscus o Originates inside knee joint o Travels down and medial • DA: posterior surface of tibia, above soleal line • N: Tibial Nerve (L4 – S1) • A: knee flexion, knee internal rotation; “knee unlocking” o *Every time knee flexes, it IR a little bit o *Every time knee extends, it ER a little bit • Assists PCL in preventing anterior translation of femur o Helps support back side of knee Posterior Compartment: Deep and Superficial • Superficial Compartment: o Gastrocnemius o Plantaris o Soleus • Deep Compartment: o Flexor Digitorum Longus o Tibialis Posterior o Flexor Hallucis Longus Triceps Surae • 3 muscles that join into 1 common tendon • Gastrocnemius o PA: above medial and lateral femoral condyles  Extends down calcaneal tendon (Achilles’ tendon) to attach onto calcaneal tuberosity (back bump of calcaneus) o DA: Calcaneal Tendon (Achilles’ tendon) o N: Tibial Nerve (S1 – S2) o A: knee flexion (stronger in knee extension); plantarflexion  Active insufficiency: gastroc is a poor plantarflexion in knee flexion (seated position) since it is already performing the action of knee flexion o Small Saphenous Vein: located superficial to gastrocnemius • Soleus o Deep to gastrocnemius o PA: soleal line; posterior head and upper shaft of fibula o DA: Calcaneal Tendon (Achilles’ tendon) o N: Tibial Nerve (S1 – S2) o A: Plantarflexion (stronger in knee flexion) • Plantaris o PA: superior to lateral femoral condyle  Travels down as very thin tendon o DA: Calcaneal Tendon (Achilles’ tendon) o N: Tibial Nerve (S1 – S2) o A: weak knee flexion; weak plantarflexion o Tendon of Plantaris often used in Tommy John Surgery or other reconstructive surgeries, such as the knee Tibialis Posterior • Found in deep subcompartment of posterior compartment o Lies in center of compartment • PA: interosseus membrane, posteromedial fibula, posterolateral tibia o Travels down, behind medial malleolus and fans out • DA: tuberosity of navicular, cuboid, 3 cuneiforms, metatarsals 2-4 o Broad distal attachment gives it the ability to perform strong action • N: Tibial Nerve (L4 – L5) • A: plantarflexion, inversion of ankle (specifically the subtalar joint) o Active in stance phase to support medial arch of foot • Peroneus Longus Tendon is located superficial to Tibialis Posterior Flexor Hallucis Longus • PA: lower posterior surface of fibula o Travels behind medial malleolus  Groove for it on Tibia and Talus  Runs under Sustentaculum Tali  Runs between Sesamoid Bones of big toe • DA: Base of distal phalynx of great toe o Crossing action and traveling between the two sesamoid bones of big toe gives Flexor Hallucis Longus a good line of pull for actions • N: Tibial Nerve (S2 – S3) • A: Interphalangeal Joint of big toe flexion; Metatarsal-Phalangeal Joint flexion; weak plantarflexion Flexor Digitorum Longus • Sits more medial in posterior compartment • Broad muscle • Tendon splits into 4 individual tendons • PA: middle half of posterior surface of tibia o Travels behind medial malleolus o Crosses over Flexor Hallucis Longus after passing medial malleolus • DA: base of distal phalynx 2-5 • N: Tibial Nerve (S2 – S3) • A: Distal Interphalangeal (DIP) Joints flexion; Proximal Interphalangeal (PIP) Joints 2-5 flexion; Metatarsophalangeal (MTP) Joints flexion; plantarflexion o Supports medial arch of foot, especially during stance phase of gait Medial Ankle • Run behind medial malleolus: o Tibialis Posterior Tendon o Flexor Digitorum Longus Tendon o Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon • Posterior Tibial Artery: runs in between Flexor Digitorum Longus and Flexor Hallucis Longus • Tibial Nerve: runs in between Flexor Digitorum Longus and Flexor Hallucis Longus • Tom, Dick, And Nervous Harry o T: Tibialis Posterior Tendon o D: Flexor Digitorum Longus Tendon o A: Posterior Tibial Artery o N: Tibial Nerve o H: Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon • Flexor Retinac
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