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PSYC 1101
Frank Naarendorp

Nicole Hicks Psychology 1101 Class/Chapter Notes Chapter/Day One, pg 3-14  Psychology is a science that focuses on the causes of behavior, studies mental processes, and applies it to solve problems  Casual Events = events that cause other events  Late 19th century is when psych became a thing -- Industrial Revolution, accepting of new ideas o Wilhelm Wundt (1879) formally established psychology as a science, Germany  Subject matter: elements of consciousness -- study the brain and its pieces (like periodic table of elements, the brain has elements too)  Method of inquiry: introspective observation o James (1890) - Psychology in the U.S! See below o Edward Titchner (1920), early 30s (a student of Wundt)  Subject matter: structure of consciousness, structuralism; which died with the success of gestalt psych  "Structionalism" studies the relationship between elements of consciousness aka Reductionism  Earliest cognition studies (U.S) -- had problems being accepted in the U.S o Herman Ebbinghaus (~1890)  Beginning of the study of memory; elements and structure of memory -- the center of the mind  Early cognition studies o Max Wertheimer (~1910), Gustav Kofka (~1920), Wolfgang Kohler (~1935) -- Germany  Objected against structionalism -- Gestalt Psychology = the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.... we are more than a sum of elements and genes. WOAH.  Start of the subfield of perception, humans are not just a machine (think optical illusions) o Ernst Weber (~1860), Gustav Frechner (~1880), Hermann von Helmholz (1890)  Subject matter: sensory systems (like vision, hearing, smell, taste, touch/pain, & balance) o Psychophysics = the study of the relationship between the human response (basic consciousness) and physical stimuli (light, sounds, pressure...)  Became a major area in psych. ~1900 o Ivan Pavlov (~1900) -- not actually a psychologist  Subject matter: brain and behavior  The conditioned reflex method: classical conditioning -- from observed behavior to underlying mechanisms --> Dog experiment, conditioned mouths to water at sound of bell/footsteps  Behavioral neuroscience becomes a subfield! o Sigmund Freud (~1903)  Subject matter: the unconscious (id, ego, super ego) << the first person to talk about it  Psychological causes of abnormal mental function... Freudian ideas have dominated psychology for a longggg time  Clinical psych becomes a subfield o William James (1890) -- Father of American psychology  Subject matter: purpose of behavior is bring about successful adaptation (influenced by Darwin)  Incredible flexibility of mental processes, we can adapt to environment -- successful people have intelligence (big focus on in the U.S); consciousness, are adaptive  Fields of psychology o Physiological psych -- studies all behavioral phenomena that can also be seen in nonhuman animals, like memory, senses, emotions, motivation, addiction, sex, and sleep. Attempts to explain behavior in terms of the nervous system o Comparative psych -- studies the behavior of members of a certain species, trying to explain behavior as it relates to evolutionary adaptation to the environment; such as mating, aggression, parental behavior, etc similar to physiological psych o Behavior genetics -- studies the role of genetics in behavior by examining similarities in physical and behavioral characteristics in blood relatives, and using animal testing to see what traits are passed on o Cognitive psych -- the study of mental processes and complex behaviors like perception, attention, learning and memory, language, and problem solving. The events that cause behavior are assumed to be in response to environmental events (usually avoids physiological stuff) - your dog sees you come home and flips (Day Two) o Cognitive neuroscience - close to cognitive psych and physiological psych -- interested in the same stuff as cog. psych people, but try to find what brain mechanisms (areas) are responsible for cognitive processes. They often study the brains of people who have been damaged by natural causes like strokes or tumors o Developmental psych -- the study of the changes in behavioral, perceptual, cognitive, social and emotional capacities of organisms as a function of age and experience. The events they study cover all other types of psychology o Social psych -- the study of the effects people have on one another's behavior, like perception, cause- and-effect relations, opinions, group dynamics (leadership), relationships, and emotional behavior like aggression and sexual behavior o Personality psych -- studies the difference of temperament and patterns of behavior in individuals, looking for events in a person's history, both genetic and environmental - like how people relate to the outside world (Day Three) o Evolutionary psych -- tries to explain cognitive, social and personality aspects of psych by looking at their adaptive importance during evolution. Often uses the theory of natural selection as a guiding principle -- traces the development of such differences to help explain the behavior of modern humans o Cross-cultural psych -- the study of the impact of culture on behavior, like laws, customs, religious beliefs, and ethical principles o Clinical psych -- the study and treatment of mental disorders and adjustment problems -- psychologists in this field are often practitioners or researchers  Psych is used in law enforcement (think eyewitnesses) and rehabilitative medicine (think sensory feedback for artificial legs) Day Two  John Watson (~1920), rejected the study of consciousness o Subject matter: overt behavior, behaviorism = to be concerned with observable behavior o Methods: operant conditioning -- thought that only stimulus-response relationships count (ex: take a toddler, and you can train it to do anything, or take a dog and train it to walk on two legs) o Limits: Behavioral limits do exist (hardwired behaviors)... a dog will never be able to write, or it can only walk on two legs for so long. People/animals have free will  B.F Skinner was the biggest proponent of behaviorism (esp. in the U.S.) after John Watson  Behaviorism as a field, has dominated American psychology for a long time... it did weaken in the 60s however due to the rise of cognitive science and neuroscience  Noam Chomsky really helped to est. linguistics/behaviorism as a science-- all about consciousness...worked against Skinner at the same time  Before and after WWI, American society underwent massive social and organizational change (due to industrialization, mass production/assembly line, immigration, and war mobilization/demobilization) o Intelligence tests (psych!) were used for immigrants, when organizing military personnel... o Sociology, social-industrial psych. came into existence around this time -- the relevance of social groups to human behavior was acknowledged  In the earlier days of psych, only the physical world around the individual was studied  Social psychologist Muzafer Sherif (~1930) showed the important of reference (social) groups -- which provide the individual with a psychosocial identity (think of African-American club on campus, or GSA)  WWII lead to the study of authoritarianism, obedience, etc. Classic studies of group influences o Solomon Ash (40s and 50s) -- conformity experiements o Stanley Milgram (50s and 60s) -- doctors tell participants to administer electrical shock to a peer... they
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