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PSYC 1101
Frank Naarendorp

sulcus = Nicole Hicks fissure Psychology 1101 Class/Chapter Notes Part Two Nervous System  Central nervous system = brain and spinal cord  Peripheral nervous system = peripheral nerves...nerves in face, legs, arms, etc. Pons  Parts of the spinal cord - cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal Medulla  Face communicates expression! Can be used to assess mood, goal,  Frontal lobe (top front), parietal lobe (top middle), occipital lobe (back), temporal lobe (bottom sides) -- everything but the frontal lobe is technically in the "back," behind the central sulcus  Representation of the sensory systems in the brain: **Know the parts, but not the location o Occipital lobe = vision o Temporal lobe = hearing o Inside temporal lobe (insula) = taste o Bottom of frontal lobe = smell o Frontal lobe... thinkin, personality o Corpus collosum connects halves of the brain, right inside the center o **Back half gets senses and front half actually performs (sensory system sends to the thalamus, sends to the sensory cortex in the back, sends to front part aka motor cortex)  More parts! REMEMBER THESE o Brain stem controls breathing, heart rate, blood pressure... parts of the brain stem include, from bottom up, Medulla oblongata (where the spinal cord enters the brain), pons, tegmentum, and tectum (midbrain) and the retricular formation o Cerebellum controls functions, like movement, balance, posture... o Midbrain controls some visual and auditory functions -- includes the tectum and tegmentum o Hypothalamus is just below and in front of the thalamus (midbrain), and regulates body temp, emotions, hunger, thirst, sexual functions, and circadian rhythms (ie: sleep, your breathing slows down) o Thalamus is in charge of processing sensory signals (from skin, eyes, nose, ears...) and motor signal relay -- receives sensory info and sends it to the cerebral cortex, which also sends info to the thalamus, and the thalamus can transmit this info to other areas in the brain and spinal cord (SEE ABOVE) o Limbic System is the area in the brain concerned with emotions, pleasure, memory processing -- the system is a group of structures that includes the amygdala (emotions), the hippocampus, and the cingulate gyrus. The hippocampus is also important for memory (and the production of memory) o Human beings are the only ones who have such a giant area for the frontal lobe (aka cerebral cortex), which is located in front of the central sulcus, and which is connected to thinking! Personality, consciousness, sequencing events (like the steps to making a sandwich), speech, sympathy, etc.  Broca's area (front) creates speech! If damaged, you cannot talk  Wernicke's area (back) understands speech Nerve Cells!  The brain processes info coming in from outside world, and regulates internal processes. It uses electrical and chemical signals that go from nerve cell to nerve cell (the most basic unit of the brain) to communicate with the rest of the body. They carry info from the sensory apparatus into the brain. These cells usually "spike" or "fire" -- spiking is when the cell produces an electrical or nerve impulse that travels super fast along the long fiber of the cell  We all have roughly 100billion nerve/brain cells. Each cell makes about 10,000 contacts... that's a lot of contact... more than the grains of sand in Florida  Receptors of the sensory systems (receptors for seeing, hearing, smelling, etc.) convert info/messages from the outside world/environment (like sound, pressure on skin...) into electrical signals. The nerve cells who are ready to receive info get it! o ***Transduction is the process whereby environmental energy (light, pressure, sound) is converted into electrical energy by the sensory apparatus  The nerve cells have a membrane, like skin, which is different on different parts of the neuron (diff. at dendrites, cell body, axon, Hillock terminal) in the same way that the skin on our lips is different from on our knees  Myelin is what covers the white matter...which is why it's white. Connects pieces of gray matter  A cell has 4 important structures -- the dendrites (receives info), the cell body ( aka Soma, transmits this info to the axon), the axon (where the spike/fire occurs to send out info to terminals), and the terminals (spits out chemicals/output to the next cell) Outside o And a membrane! Covers all parts of the cell to make sure the cell doesn't get overwhelmed by info. Also keeps all that liquid in Cell Inside Cell  A cell is said to be at rest before the "activity" arrives -- only quiet activity going on at the membrane. Na N No firing :p Just the movement of ions (charged particles) passing back and forth through the cell + a + membrane<< membranes can be permeable for certain ions, and not permeable for others. It kind of leaks K+ K+ though... Let's take a peek chemicals while the cell is at rest o Na+ in the fluid outside of the cell is far GREATER than the sodium inside the cell. It tries not to let sodium in but it happens Cl- Cl- o Cl- is the same both ways (so it does NOT contribute to the charge of the cell) o K+ is less outside than inside (so the cell's membrane is permeable to potassium) o Stochiometry -- take 2 give three, take three give two.. etc. to maintain charge -- the sodium-potassium pump is this whole system of ions out and in. The sodium-potassium pump increases its activity by removing sodium from the cell and bringing potassium back into the cell.  The cell can leak though, and Na+ ions are pulled into the cell because there are only a few Na+ ions on the inside. Same idea with K+. The pump has two arms, and one grabs the K+ ions to get em back, and the other arm throws out the extra Na+  When a cell is active, it changes its permeability (can be chemically started, or voltage instigated). Now Na+ ions can come in! K+ ions may have to leave... o Being made more positive on the inside (goes from -70mVolts to -60mVolts) = depolarization -- action time! o (...When the cell is at rest = hyperpolarized. Super polarized!) o Nerve cells get input from a bunch of axon terminals, so there are a bunch of currents traveling across the cell body to the axon. At the place between the cell body and the axon there is an area called the axon hillock where different currents come together and add up  If the currents add up to the right amount (if there is enough positive charge) the cell will fire o Voltage sensitive channels reduce the charge, when needed, by closing or opening some channels  When the cell is at about -45/-40mVolts, the threshold for firing, all of the Na+ channels open up and Na+ rushes in  >> Allows a rapid flow of ions, creating a quick depolarization (triggers voltage change)  This super fast current is called the action potential. It is the same amount fired every time. HOWEVER, you can produce more than one action potential. Like if the stimuli is more intense (being tapped on the back vs. being stabbed there) -- more outside stimuli = more fires, or the frequency coding principle o A cell either fires (produces an action potential) or it doesn't. No half business. All or nothing principle. The decision to fire is made at the axon hillock o Synapse is the little area between two nerve cells, where the messages are passed on o Once an action potential has occurred, the cell needs to recover. This time is called the refractory period. The sodium-potassium pump works harder by removing sodium from the cell and brings
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