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5. Memory.pdf

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PSYC 1101

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Memory   The  capacity  to  retain  and  retrieve  information  through:   Encoding   Storage   Retrieval   Classification  by  duration  (3):   1. Sensory   2. Short  term   3. Long  Term   Sensory  memory   200-­‐500  msec  (time  exposure  to  stimulus  lasts)   Initial  perception  of  an  item   Most  often  encoded  as  visual  or  auditory   Retention  of  sensory  memory  is  a  result  of  short  term  memory   Short  Term  Memory  (STM)   Lasts  about  20  seconds   Exact  duration  is  dependent  on  long  term  memory   Sustained  longer  through  rehearsal   Ex.  Repeating  a  phone  number  again  and  again   Easily  disrupted   Capacity  of  short  term  memory  can  be  expanded  by  chunking   (grouping  info  into  larger  chunks)   Serial  position  phenomenon   It  is  hardest  to  remember  the  middle  of  a  list   Beginning  of  a  list  -­‐  high  recall   Primacy  effect  -­‐  rehearsal     First  thing  you  do,  doing  something  new,  something   novel   Middle  -­‐  poor  recall   Spending  energy  on  rehearsing  the  beginning   End  -­‐  high  recall   Recency  effect  -­‐  still  in  short  term  memory   Long  Term  Memory  (LTM)   Three  categories  of  long  term  memory   Episodic  -­‐  Specific  events  (episodes)  in  your  life   Ex.  How  you  celebrated  your  last  birthday   Semantic  -­‐  General  knowledge   Ex.  Terms  and  facts  for  your  next  psych  test   Procedural  -­‐  Habits;  Stimulus-­‐response  memory   Ex.  How  to  brush  your  teeth   STM  -­‐>  LTM  encoding   New  info  needs  to  be  related  to  other  info  already  in  LTM   Rehearsal  may  play  a  role   Maintenance  rehearsal  -­‐  automatic  repetition   Ex.  Repeating  a  phone  number   Elaborative  rehearsal  -­‐  forming  associations  between  new  info  and   previously  stored  info   Types  of  LTM  encoding   Verbal  vs.  visual  (imagery)   Acoustic   Pledge  of  allegiance   Poems   Songs   Vs   Semantic   Operant  and  classical  conditioning   How  to  register  for  NU  classes   Mnemonic  devices   Associating  a  term  with  something  you  know   Aids  in  moving  info  from  STM  to  LTM   Uses  clustering  and  previous  knowledge  to  link  new  info  to  already   existing  information   Method  of  loci  -­‐  using  visual  imagery  to  encode  and  recall   information   Ex.  What  is  the  layout  of  your  room?   Examples   Rhymes   I  before  E  except  after  C   “30  days  hath  September…”   Acronyms   HOMES  -­‐  Huron,  Ontario,  Michigan,  Erie,  Superior   SAME  -­‐  sensory/afferent,  motor/efferent   Eidetic  Imagery   Photographic  memory   May  be  related  to  sensory  memory  but  lasts  longer   Ex.  Robert  Langdon  in  Da  Vinci  Code   Found  in  10%  of  kids  in  1%  of  adults   Controversial  as  to  its  existence-­‐  replicable?   Studies  are  inconclusive   Retrieval  of  LTM   Recall   When  you  name  or  recover  info  after  being  given  only  barest  of
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