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Lecture

4. Learning.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1101
Professor
Halko
Semester
Fall

Description
7/14/09  Learning  Learning experience of a situation or environment at one point in time alters behavior at another point in time  Two categories • Classical conditioning • Operant conditioning  Behaviorism  Overt, observable acts in response to observable stimuli  John B. Watson  Father of behaviorism, 1913  All behavior is learned S -R (stimuli- response)  B.F. Skinner  Followed Watson, 1938  Also allowed for some learning we can not see but said these things were not things to ask questions about  Classical Conditioning  Ivan Pavlov – 1830 -1936  Experiments influenced Watson • Reflex- an automatic stimulus response sequence mediated by the nervous system • Stimulus Response- an action immediately following a particula r event  Pavlov’s Dogs- • Studying reflexes in digestion ♦ Problem: dogs would salivate prior to food ♦ Dogs were making an association with food presentation that elicited a reflexive response = salivating  Conditioning:  Neural stimulus will elicit no reaction  Unconditioned stimulus will elicit reflex action  Unconditioned stimulus and neural stimulus will elicit reflex action  Conditioned stimulus will elicit a conditioned response  Before Conditioning:  Neural stimulus (bell) = no solution with dog  During Conditioning  Neural stimulus (bell)  unconditioned (food)  unconditioned (solution)  After Conditioning  Conditioned stimulus (bell)  conditioned (solution)  Example: Pavlov Experiment Fear of Flying/phobia Neural stimulus (bell) Plane Unconditioned stimulus (food) Turbulence Unconditioned response( action) Fear Conditioned stimulus (bell) Plane Conditioned response (salvation) Fear of flying  Law Association by contiguity  Learning experience:  Stimulus A: Stimulus B: Mental Thought Shown word: Ball Shown image of ball connects word and image (After Learning) Shown word: Ball see image  Pavlov vs. Aristotle  The phenomenon of Association by contiguity had been witnessed as far back as Aristotle  Pavlov’s work gave a scientific explanation f or the phenomenon  Association by Contiguity • Predicts a thought is elicited  Classical Conditioning • States a behavior will be elicited • Classical conditioning phenomenon ♦ Extinction- the conditioned response no longer occurs after repeated pairings without the unconditioned stimulus ♦ Spontaneous recovery - partial recovery of the conditioned reflex after a time away from the conditioned stimulus ♦ Generalization- after conditioning, stimulus that resembles the conditioned stimulus will elicit response even though t hey themselves were never paired with the unconditioned response ♦ Discrimination- when a conditioned response does not occur when there is a difference between the presented stimulus and the original conditioned stimulus  John B. Watson  Studied behaviorism through empirical studies  Sought to restrict psychology to experimental methods  Famous “Little Albert” study at John Hopkins Univ.  11 months old  loud sound (fear) + rat (no fear until noise and rat together) = fear  generalization- when presented with a dog or a rabbit, Little Albert was fearful  extinction- 31 day after conditioning, Little Albert showed reduced fear of generalized stimulus • however, he was pulled from the experiment before Watson could demonstrate complete extinction  E.L. Thorndike  Placed cats in a latched box, 1898 • Learned to pull a lever for food  Operant conditioning  The consequence of a response will effect if it is done again • Ie. Good = repeated response Bad = no response  B.F. Skinner  Shaping/ reinforcement  Positive • Response  stimulus ♦ Pulled lever  food  Negative • Response  removal of stimulus  Punishment • Response  negative stimulus  Conditioning Classical conditioning operant conditioning Stimuli  response response stimulus Learning by associating stimulus learning by consequence With outcome  Observational Learning – Bandora  Learning by watching others (cognitive process)  Children observe violence towards a doll  When alone they too will be violent with it  Necessary steps for learning  Attention- must find it interesting  Memory- must be encoded  Motor control- must be able to cause function/ movement from memory  Motivation- must have a reason to act Consequences   Positive  reinforcement-­‐  the  arrival  of  some  stimulus  following  a  response  which  makes  the   response  more  likely  to  occur   Ex.  Getting  food  after  pushing  the  correct  button   Negative  reinforcement-­‐  the  removal  of  some  stimulus  following  a  response  which  makes  the   response  more  likely  to  occur   Ex.  Removing  a  shock  after  pushing  the  correct  button   Punishment-­‐  addition  of  a  stimulus  that  reduces  the  likelihood  that  a  response  will  occur   (positive-­‐adding  something  to  the  situation  like  hitting  or  yelling)  (negative-­‐  removing   something  to  decrease  the  likelihood  of  behavior,  ex.  no  tv  for  a  week)   Ex.  Getting  a  shock  after  pushing  the  wrong  button   Reinforcement  Schedules   Continuous  1  to  1,  a  prize  every  time  (once  you  aren’t  reinforced,  you  stop  doing  the  behavior)     Ratio:   Fixed:  1  to  n,  a  prize  every  n  times  (the  behavior  doesn’t  last)   Variable:  n  to  n,  maybe  a  prize,  maybe  not  (make  it  so  its  not  please  every  n  times,  it  just  becomes  an   ingrained  behavior)   Interval  (most  complex)   Fixed:  announced  examination   Variable:  pop  quiz  (makes  the  behavior  last  the  longest)   Classical  Conditioning   Stimulus  precedes  response  and  elicits  it   Elicits  response   Learning  as  a  result  of  association   Pavlov   Elicits  response  as  a  result  of  associating   Unconditioned  stimulus   Neutral  stimulus   Operant  conditioning   Stimulus  follows  the  response  a
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