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Theories of Personality_3.docx

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PSYC 3400
William Sharp

Theories of Personality: Chapter 3 Conditioning/Learning Theories (Watson, Pavlov, Skinner) Classical Conditioning Example 1: Nike = sports, check mark Example 2: Car ad with woman sitting on car in business attire vs. car ad with women in bikinis washing the car The car s not sexy but the women are Unconditional stimulus (UCS): Car  unconditional response (UCR): sex appeal Car (neutral stimulus)  conditional response Example of Classical Conditioning: You want clothing from a movie star’s new line. Movie star is performing well and you want to be associated with this star. Person as Trained Animal  Behavioral Psychologist use animals as models of conditioning and learning  Humans are “higher animals” Behaviorism’s “Birth Announcement” “Give me a dozen healthy infants…and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might suggest… regardless of his talents… tendencies… [or race].” – John Watson ^ radical POV. Believes that everything is from the environment Behaviorist Theories Personality to a behaviorist – consistent behavior resulting from conditioning history interacting with situational stimuli Situational Zone – bridge between bottom up chemical compositionists and top- down humanists WATSON – behavior was always a reaction to a stimulus Ex: dog learns that food is presented soon after a bell is rung Stimulus + response  dog salivating Bell (neutral) has become a stimulus MCDOUGALL – behavior was purposive and goal directed Introspection – the careful examination of one’s subjective thoughts, sensations and images What are the Parts? Stimulus and response – what shapes personality (Watson) Stimulus = any object in the environment Response = anything the animal does What Makes a Person Go? Law of contiguity: when a pattern of stimuli is experienced along with a response, the two will become associated. Watson’s model of personality has no self, only a “reacting mass” A- Associated B- behaviors C- connect Associated learning depends on how things are presented Ex: bell ringing and appearance of food must be presented relatively close together; some connection of proximity is needed for learning to occur What Makes a Person Grow? Development: the cumulative record that experience engraves on the tabula rasa of the mind. Facing the Tough Twins Testable although Watson claimed theoretical constructs as well. Is it Useful? Behavior modification: treatments that use lab-derived “laws of learning” to directly change behaviors Watson’s Behaviorism Radical behaviorism: an explanation of human behavior can be achieved with a scientific analysis of situational stimuli. Cognitive behaviorism: seeking to include the cognitive dimensions of b
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