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PSYC 3404 (53)

The Start of Life

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PSYC 3404
Christina Cipriano

In the Womb: -GAMETES (reproductive cells) fuse to create ZYGOTE -Monozygotic v. Dizygotic twints (Identical v. Fraternal) -Infertility: Inability to conceive after 18 months of trying. -Genotype: Underlying genetic material Homozygous- Alleles that contain similar information from each parent Heterozygous- Alleles that contain different information from each parent -Phenotype: Physical manifestation of your genetic inheritance When Development Deviates-- Causes: Genetics, Spontaneous Mutation, Environmental Insult Consequences: Down Syndrome (Trysomy 21), Sickle-Cell Anemia, Tay-Sachs Disease, Fragile-X Syndrome. Interaction of Heredity and Environment-- Multifactorial Transmission- Nature AND Nurture Intelligence- Closer genetic link leads to more similar IQs, Closer in age with sibling leads to higher correlation with IQs. Culture, Parental Encouragement, Educational, Social Involvement Sandra Scarr- Gene-environmental influence -Passive (usually newborns) -Active (toddlerhood and up) -Evocative (todlerhood and up) Prenatal Growth and Change: Conception- 100 mil. sperm produced daily 400,000 ovum at birth, mature at puberty Ovum + Sperm = Zygote Germinal Stage: Moment of fertalization --> 2 weeks Blastocyst travels and implants in uterus. Embryonic Stage: 2 weeks --> 8 weeks Embryo firmly secures to uterus. Development of major organs and anatomy. Ectoderm (skin, hair, teeth). Endoderm (internal systems). Mesoderm (muscle, bone, blood/circulation). Fetal Stage: 8 weeks --> Birth Fetus develops rapidly... Organs start working. Brain becomes more sophisticated. 38.5 weeks- full term. Sleep and wakefulness. Hear and feel vibrations. 8-24 weeks, hormones result in gender differentiation. Age of Viability: Age at which a baby can survive outside of womb. Pregnancy Problems: Infertility, Miscarriage (15-20% of pregnancies. Mostly before 12 week mark), Abortion. Teratogen: Any threat to prenatal development such as.. -Environmental Toxins -Smok
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