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Theories of Psychological Development

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PSYC 3404
Christina Cipriano

THEORIST WHAT DEVELOPS HOW DEVELOPMENT PROCEEDS PRINCIPLES OTHER KEY TERMS PSYCHODYNAMIC Freud Focus on inner person, unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior Behavior motivated by inner forces, memories and conflicts Personality has three aspects: id, ego, superego Stages of psychosexual development Pleasure principle Fixations BEHAVIORAL Watson Focus on observable behavior and outside environment stimuli Behavior is a result of continuing exposure to specific environmental factors; developmental change is quantitative Classical Conditioning (organisms learn to respond in a particular way to a neutral stimuli) Skinner Focus on observable behavior and outside environment stimuli Voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by association with negative or positive consequence Operant Conditioning Deliberate actions on environment Behavior modification Bandura Focus on learning through observation Behavior is learned through observation Social-Cognitive learning occurs through four steps: Attend/Perceive Recall Accurately Reproduce Motivated to carry out behavior Model Reward COGNITIVE Piaget Focus on processes that allow people to know, understand and think about the world Human thinking is arranged in organized mental patterns that represent behavior and actions, understanding of world improves through assimilation and accommodation Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete Operational Formal Operational (Post Formal thought?) Schemes Cognitive Equilibrium Information Processing Approach Focus primarily on memory Information is thought to be processed in serial, discontinued manner as it moves from stage to stage, information is stored in multiple locations throughout the brain by means of network connections Cognitive development proceeds quickly in certain areas and more slowly in others, experience plays greater role in cognition Non-Piagetan theory Cognitive Neuroscience Approach Focus on cognitive development through lens of brain Approach considers internal, mental processes, but focuses specifically on the neurological activity that underlies thinking, problem solving, and other co
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