Chapter and Class Notes - Soc PART TWO.docx

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SOCL 1101
Shelley Mc Donough Kimelberg

Nicole Hicks Sociology 1101, Spring 2013 Chapter Six - Social Control and Deviance  Paradox: It is the deviants among us who hold society together  Social deviance is any transgression of socially established norms, from answering your cell phone in class, to murder... breaking rules! Both social and formal rules o There is informal deviance (defying social norms, unwritten rules) and formal deviance (official, legal- related crime)  Social norms and the punishments for violating them change over time and from place to place... think hanging women because they were "witches" to enforcing the Jim Crow Laws, punishment for premarital sex, gay marriage/sex, etc.. also connected with cultural values, and is socially constructed (if you tolerate a behavior, it's no longer deviant) o Crime is the violation of laws enacted by society  The functionalist approach to deviance -- society is one complex organism with many organs doing specific things. The state is the brain (made up of cells, or individuals) that decides what is right and wrong, to keep the organism safe << the state d/evelops because society needs a decision-making center  Durkheim used functionalism to explain social cohesion, which is the way people relate to each other and get along...aka social bonds -- he believed there were two ways society can hold together: mechanical (or segmental) solidarity (everyone is the same) or organic solidarity (we are different and interdependent) -- mechanical was pre-modern, while organic is modern society  When individuals commit acts of deviance, they offend the collective conscience (named by Durkheim), aka the common set of norms by which a society abides, or a set of common assumptions about how the world works -- without a collective conscience there is no sense of moral unity, and a society would break into chaos << to avoid this chaos, we punish those who break away, so society doesn't dissolve o Deviance clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms (society much be clear about what is and is not acceptable), fosters the feeling of "we" (think about 9/11) and promotes social change by pushing the envelope o Depending on whether you're a mechanical society or organic, you have different ways of "punishing" people  In mechanical solidarity, punitive justice is used. This means that the offender must suffer, defining the boundaries of what is acceptable behavior -- group punishment -- reinforce boundaries and unite collectively through actions like a town hanging (all key to the cohesion and unity of the society)  ***Ironically, think about when society executed Timothy McVeigh (Oklahoma), we killed him... his deviance helped keep our society together by our reinforcement of social norms***  With organic solidarity, social sanctions are produced that focus on the individual - they're tailored to the specific person and their actions << rehabilitative response, designed to turn the offender into a productive member of society. Unlike mechanical sol. we care about motives and past issues that caused the deviance. WE can fix you! -- punishment can also be restitutive, aka restore the status quo that existed prior to the offense (ex: a company pays people to make up for what happened to them)\ o Both mechanical and organic social sanctions still exist in the US, even though we would call ourselves a modern  Social control is the set of mechanisms that creative normative compliance, the act of abiding by society's norms or following the rules of group life  There are two types of social control mechanisms o Formal social sanctions are laws (like laws against rape, theft, etc.) o Informal social sanctions are widely known but unspoken rules of group membership (ex: burping loudly in public)  The idea behind informal social sanctions is that we are all both enforcing the rules of society and having them enforced upon us  Durkheim talked about suicide as an act of deviance o We often think of suicide as an individual action, that the social norms of particular social groups (the conditions of group life) generate variations in suicide rates - To be at low risk for suicide, or other deviant behavior, you have to be in the middle with these two things:  Social regulations the number of rules guiding your daily life and what you can reasonably expect from the world on a day-to-day basis  Social integration is how well you are integrated into your social group or community o SO you should be integrated in your community with a reasonable set of rules to structure your life... aka "normal" life  Egoistic suicide is suicide that occurs when one is not well integrated into a social group  Too much integration can lead to altruistic suicide, because a group dominates the life of an individual so much that they feel meaningless aside from this social group (Think of sati, when a wife throws herself on her husbands' funeral pyre, to show she recognizes that her life is meaningless outside of her social role as a wife, or in cult groups)  Anomie is a sense of aimlessness or despair that arises when we can no longer reasonably expect life to be predictable; too little social regulation (no control b/c there are no rules)  Anomic suicide occurs when there is too little social regulation... when the stock market crashed, many stock brokers jumped from high-rise buildings, because their life would never be the same again. Same thing happens with lottery winners, who feel that their life before is now useless..why clip coupons or reuse paper bags for lunch...?  Fatalistic suicide happens when there is too much social regulation - you do the same thing day after day, with no change and little hope of other options (like prison, no control because there are so many rules)  Robert Merton's strain theory was that deviance occurs when a society doesn't give all of its members equal opportunity to achieve socially acceptable goals. We have social templates for doing the right things, but the means won't match up to the ends for everyone o Conformists accept both the goals and strategies to achieve socially acceptable goals  Ex: Getting a college education to get a good job o Ritualists reject socially defined goals, but NOT the means  Ex: You go to college but don't want the big house, 2.3 kids, a dog and a new car  You barely take notes and do just enough to pass classes. You don't care if you make a ton of money, you just need enough to cover your studio apartment o Innovators accepts the social goals but rejects the mean to achieve them  Ex: You want to be rich and famous but don't have the patience or money to get there. Instead of working on Wall Street, you become a drug dealer or make friends with the Mafia o Retreatists reject BOTH the means and the goals of society by completely retreating from society. No participation.  Ex: Hermit in the woods o Rebels reject BOTH the means and the goals but wants to alter or destroy the social institutions from which he or she is alienated  Ex: Ernesto Che Guevara, revolutionists  Theories of Deviance: o Labeling theory is the belief that individuals subconsciously notice how others see or label them, and their reactions to those labels, over time, form the basis of their self-identity -- because of this, we assign shared meanings to acts, like stealing is wrong, or deviant  ^^ The labels become self-fulfilling prophecies, if you accept the labels  Primary deviance = first transgression. If you're labeled as deviant and come to accept that label, it will influence future acts  Secondary deviance = those acts that occur after the primary deviance and are a result of the deviance label (self-fulfilling pro.)  The Stanford Prison Experiment (Zimbardo) shows the power of social labels...  Zim. also left abandoned cars in two different places (South Bronx and a wealthy part of CA) - the one in the Bronx is immediately striped of everything, graffiti is on it. The one in CA sits untouched for a few weeks. Next, Zim went to the CA car and smashed the windows. Immediately, this car becomes vandalized too  *** Broken Window Theory -- ^^ the way that you perceive your surroundings, will influence how you behave. So disorder in your environment prompts deviant behavior o Conflict Theory argues that deviance is a product of unfair or unequal social conditions in a society, like poor people/minorities getting harsher punishments than wealthy people  When the same laws get applied unequally ^^ or when the laws themselves are designed to make sure that the rich stay rich and the poor stay poor (ex: tax laws that favor the wealthy)  It's easier to go after petty criminals (like drug users) who have no power, than to go after white-collar criminals with a lot of power  Ex: In the U.S, it used to be that the punishment for selling powdered cocaine was far far less than for selling crack cocaine. And this was because higher class people were selling/buying the powder as opposed to crack o Deterrence Theory is the notion that crime results from a rational calculation of its costs and benefits (our criminal justice system tries to think of this when they're trying to come up with punishments to prevent crime) o Stigma is a negative social label that changes your behavior toward a person, and alters that person's own self-concept and social identity  Crime rates are socially constructed...lots to factor in, like what is reported  Crime rates in the U.S has been on the decline since the peak at the 1980s  Victims change based on race, gender, class, etc.  International incarceration rates in OECD countries: lowest in Iceland, Japan, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden... highest in New Zealand, Czech Republic, Mexico, Poland, and the U.S -- 753 among 100,000 people in the U.S, while the second highest is 224 (lowest is 44) -- the US has 5% of the world's population, and about 25% of its prisoners...and this is a fairly new phenomenon. After 1980s the numbers soared o US population increased 43% in the time that there was a 764% increase in incarceration o ***This could be a new era, of mass imprisonment -- a rate of incarceration that is higher than the historical and comparative norm for societies of this type. Imprisonment ceases to be the incarceration of individual offenders and becomes the systematic imprisonment of whole groups of the population  Reasons for this include: sentencing legislation (three strikes in CA, mandatory min. sentences increased), war on drugs (more than 1/3 of inmates are there because of drug convictions), and prison-industrial complex (private's now an economic thing)  Criminal records greatly hurt your chance of getting a job and whatnot...there was an audit study done with a set of white people, a set of black people (two with crim. records, two withouts) sent to interviews-- whites were more likely to get called back, WHAT, and having a criminal record made them a lot less likely to get called back o Whites with a criminal record were more likely to get called back than blacks without a record..HMM. A criminal record is like a credential  Credentialing confirms stereotypes (you're not asked what you learned at college, they just assume you've learned something when you say you have a college degree)  Michel Foucault looked at the difference between penal practices from the 18th century to now... o Panopticon = a circular building composed of an inner ring and an outer ring, used as a prison in which the prisoners can always be seen by a hidden observer in the center ring Chapter Seven - Social Stratification  Paradox: inequality is the result of surplus/abundance  Stratification, or inequality, is a discipline in sociology... it's a system by which society ranks and categorizes people in a hierarchy (structured, NOT random, systemic, inequality) << predictable and measurable o Social stratification is universal but variable o Within a given society, members understand it and see it as rational and fair (whether or not it is)  Forms of stratification -- there are closed systems (which allow little change in social position) and open systems (which permit more social mobility, at least in theory) o Closed System Example: Caste systems - often have religious bases, permanent o Open System Example: Class systems - things can change based on an achieved (or lost) economic position  David and Moore -- (functionalists) social strat. has beneficial consequences for operation of a society -- there are certain positions in society that are simply more important/valuable to society than others. These require special skills, which relatively few people have -- to attract the most qualified people, you need to offer sufficient rewards $$ o AKA, meritocracy. Those who get ahead do so based on their own merit o Doesn't explain things like why men get paid more than women for no "merit" driven reason...also, who gets to decide what's important and what isn't? Some people get paid a lot to do things that aren't really "important," like the the rewards actually reflect the contribution to society? -- also not keeping track of opportunity. We didn't all start in the same place  Marx -- (conflict theorist) strat. is based on one's relationship to the means of production << are you an owner, or a laborer. Capitalism divides society into two classes, the bourgeoisie and the proletariat o With ownership, you have all the power and control (as opposed to the workers) o Argued that this division is inherently unstable, because the proletariat is the majority... = revolution o Overlooks complexities... a bit too simple. An investment banker making gazillions and a janitor making nothing are both technically "proletariats" (not owners...) but they're not really in the same class. And capitalism is still around, sooo where's the revolution?  Weber -- social classes are complex, with three components: class (economic continuum), status (honor, reputation), power (ability to control own working situation or to influence others) o ^^ These three components are often interrelated, but can operate independently (ex: Royalty...they have lots of money but don't have a choice, and in the UK now, they don't have any real power, ex: Owner of McDonalds...lots of power but not a lot of status, ex: the Pope)  Rousseau saw the move away from the pure state of nature as a terrible historical development -- "man was born free and he is everywhere in chains" o BUT later enlightenment thinkers like Ferguson, Miller and Malthus saw the inequality as good, or at least necessary.  The Index of Occupational Status polled the general public, starting in the 1960s, asking people how prestigious they thought certain occupations are, like College Professor, Physician, Social Worker, Police Officer, Truck Driver, Janitor -- people seem to base it on how crucial their role is, their socioeconomic status, opportunity for fame, education required, life/death effect, glamour of position, how much people want to do the job, etc.  Sociologists often use the term socioeconomic status (SES) to operationalize status. This keeps with Weber's multifaceted definition of soc. strat. The SES comes from occupation, income, education, lifestyle choices, etc.  Equality types = equality of opportunity (the rules of the game are the same for everyone, we all run the same distance, happens in a bourgeois society like capitalism, max. profit), equality of condition (rules are the same AND everyone has an equal starting point), and equality of outcome (everyone must END up in the same position, not concerned with the rules, but the distribution of resources)  Ontological equality = everyone is equal in the eyes of God  Social mobility is the movement between different classes, or different positions in a strat. system o Intergenerational Mobility means your parents are middle class and you become upper (upward mobility) or your parents are working class and you become lower class (downward mobility) o Intragenerational Mobility it the individual movement up or down within their life o If you look at society as a whole, you can also look at mobility  Structural mobility when changes in the economy affect large portions of society (mostly upward, think post-war, everyone gets better paying jobs... middle class expanded)  Exchange mobility is the exchange of mobility (think that there are only a certain number of "slots" in each class, so if you move up someone else has to move down) o There is a strong correlation between parent's income and child's income  Hagel viewed history in terms of a master-slave dialectic, or two-directional relationship, like a conversation o The slave is dependent on the master because he provides food, shelter, etc. But the MASTER is also dependent on the slave, who performs basic functions until the master cannot function on his own (like driving a car, getting dressed, etc). Mutual dependency.  Elite-mass dichotomy system = when there is a government elite and a few leaders who hold most of the power  Meritocracy = status and mobility are based on individual attributes, ability, and achievement Chapter Eight - Gender and Inequality  Paradox: The biological categories of sex influence the social dynamics of gender.... but the social categories of gender can sometimes determine the biology of sex  Female circumcision is the removal of the clitoris  Sex (biological differences like chromosomes, organs) vs. Sexuality (sexual preference/behavior) vs. Gender (social category, built around sex, changes with each society)  Gender roles are a set of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one's status as male or female  Gender: o Some Native American cultures think there are four genders, while in the West we believe there are two. Think of gender roles, like Momma at home and Daddy at work o Gender roles are thought of as a reflection of existing differences between men and women (maybe women just work better in the home) OR these roles are "deceptive distinctions" << used to justify things that are really much more fluid...the differences aren't that great o Intersectionality is that is no single gender (you can't just be feminine or just masculine), and that your gender identity is influenced by your other identities (race, sexual, class...) -- what it means to be a white, middle class, homosexual woman is completely different from what it means to be an African, poor, lesbian woman << All about the plurals  Functionalist perspective of gender roles= men and women play distinctive roles that are functional for the whole of society. When people stick to their gender roles, we have healthy, stable, societies and families - gender is helpful  Those that say that gender involves differences in power, unequal access to opportunities, resources are conflict theorists. It creates a division as men seek to maintain privileges and women challenge the status quo. Think about different genders as different groups (or classes) - gender is harmful, limits development and divides society by giving power to one group  The symbolic interactionist perspective emphasizes gender as a process, not a fixed category. We are always using our daily interactions to define and redefine our gender -- it's a matter of active doing, not just being o We "do" gender by... being a woman who puts on makeup, being a man who uses a urinal instead of a toilet, body language (like women crossing legs, men leaning on their knees), going into a door labeled either "Mens" or "Ladies," women swearing being called unladylike, shaving, the way we dress  Feminism is a movement that tries to get people to understand that gender is an organizing principle of life. Men and women should have equal opportunities and respect -- a big movement, suggests that men and women are not equal, and that this inequality is wrong o Liberal fem., when you work through the existing system and remove certain barriers o Radical fem., where you want to overthrow the patriarchal order because men benefit from the exploitation of women. Deep seeded prejudices o Black fem. believes that most feminist schools advocate for white, middle-class, hetero women<< recognizes intersectionalities (see above) o Postmodern fem. says that there is no objective truth, like postmodernism, and argues that there is no one female experience. Seeks no common bases on which to unite women  Essentialism explains social phenomena in terms of natural ones. AKA o Fixity, lack of history, absolutism, and biological determinism -- o Biological determinism explains social behavior in terms of biological givens (what you do in the social world is a directly result of who you are in the natural if you're born with male parts, you are absolutely a man, are attracted to women, etc.)  Hegemonic masculinity dominant and privileged (even if invisible) category of men  Patriarchy is an almost universal system involving the subordination of femininity to masculinity  When a person's sex is the basis for judgment, discrimination, or hatred. Belief that one sex is superior = sexism  An unequal relationship between genders, determin
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