Chapter and Class Notes - Soc PART THREE.docx

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SOCL 1101
Shelley Mc Donough Kimelberg

Nicole Hicks Sociology 1101, Spring 2013 Social Institutions Chapter Twelve - Family  Paradox: we think of the family as a haven in a harsh world, but inequality begins at home  Family = a social institution that unites people in cooperative groups to care for one another, typically related by blood, marriage, or adoption o Marriage = legally and socially recognized relationship, often involving economic cooperation, sexual union, and childbearing. One mechanism by which a family can be built upon o Polygamy = practice whereby an individual has more than one spouse/partner at a time o Endogamy = Marriage within one's social group (racial/ethnic, class, religious, etc.) - someone like yourself << most likely to marry someone in your racial group  There are social pressure for doing so, and also laws (interracial marriage used to be prohibited) o Exogamy = Marriage outside of one's social group, like across class, race, religious lines  Nuclear family is when two adults live together (typically a husband and wife) live together with their children in one household -- although it is not reflective of the typical family in the US, or really anywhere. Ever.  Extended family are people beyond the nuclear unit (like grandparents, aunts, cousins, etc.) typically in the same household, often beyond two generations  Kinship ties are broader connections among individuals united through marriage, common ancestry, etc. to whom we have social obligations  Families before and after the Industrial Revolution o Pre-Industrial -- home was work, work was home. Think farms. Families made and consumed their own food, clothing, shelter. Large kinship communities. Minimal division of labor between sexes, and children were part of the family labor pool o Industrial -- men left household production for factory work...created separate spheres, public and private. Men specialized in public (paid) sphere, while women worked in the private (unpaid) sphere. Families become more mobile, and separated from kinship networks, focus on smaller family units now. Notion of a "family wage" was introduced, aka men needed to earn money enough for themselves AND the entire family unit  Post WWII, the "traditional" nuclear family was held up as the dominant and normative (desirable) unit  1950s marked by an economic boom -- good jobs, union pay, housing subsidies. Families moved to the suburbs, divorce rates dropped, and women returned attention to home life o Now you can sell new things to these suburban peeps. Cars, lawnmowers, cleaning supplies  The media idealized the nuclear family BUT it was never universally achievable for all families o ^ Maybe the male can't earn enough to sustain a family, with mom not working o Cult of "true womanhood/domesticity" -- Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique  Functionalist perspective on the family = Macro! Families serve a good social function. They perform important tasks that contribute to society's basic needs, and help to perpetuate social order (teaches it to kids) o Talcott Parsons was a US sociologist who thought that the nuclear family was normative (good) because it's efficient - creates workers for money, and nurturers to teach children < complimentary o Weaknesses: Doesn't give either gender the opportunity to express other talents they have. Also assumes consensus on responsibilities  Conflict (feminist) perspective focuses on how the family creates and perpetuates inequality, particularly gender inequality. It questions view of family as a cooperative unit -- the unequal power relationships benefit some members more than others o Focus on relationship between earning and power can you quantify care/reproductive work when there is no money being made? It's devalued o Also, if both parents work, they often hire help (outsourcing) -- when women hire others, they are releasing themselves from THEIR gender subordinate standing, but are doing it to others because it is usual women of a different race and lower class ... so. o Weaknesses: Some people like their gender roles... and there are many pos/neg consequences for outsources/leaving those gender roles  The "stalled revolution" emphasizes the dramatic increase in women's participation in the paid labor force... this is revolutionary! BUT, this economic shift has not been accompanied by changes in our cultural understanding of marriage and work roles (the workplace and what's going on at home haven't changed proportionally) -- it's the strain between the change in women and the absence of change in other areas that would make working women's lives easier o In the US, there is NO mandated maternity leave (except 12 weeks unpaid for some workers) So, women might pick companies that will give them the most maternity leave. However, lower-paying positions don't usually give it, and women-friendly professions do...also, you often have to be at a job full-time and for over a year (which is worse for part-time employees, like those at Wal-Mart, or those who struggle to have a consistent job) lots of discouragement/unfair practices here.  The Second Shift by Arlie Hochschild talks about a classic ethnographic study (1989) of how men and women divide household responsibilities o Idea that women work two "shifts" every day - one in the paid workforce, and one at home o Hochschild pointed to a leisure gap between men and women. While men were often able to relax when they got home, women had to start their "second job"  Estimated that women work an average of 15 extra hours per week  Women do more of the daily jobs at home where as men have more control over when they make their contributions to the house (ex: woman has to feed the kids, man can choose if he wants to fix the light in the bathroom)  Men do more of what they'd rather do (take kids to the zoo) while women spend more time doing 2 things at once, while also doing the undesirable stuff (cleaning toilets)  ^^ However, there was a dramatic increase in men's contribution to childcare between 1965 and 2003. There is also less of a gap between household-work hours between men and women (but it's still large)  Marriage - when women get married their household work increases by 4 hours, but men's decreases by 4hrs  Equality of earnings - the closer together men's and women's earnings, the more they share the household responsibilities. BUT, men who are economically dependent on their wives, often do the least amount of domestic work...emasculating to further do "women" things like housework  Hours worked, age, education, race, and family type all effect who does how much work. Younger couples tend to share household work more equally, African-American men do more household labor than white men, lesbian couples divide work more equally, etc.  Marriage and family trends in the US o We marry far later o Have children far later  Increase in average age of first birth (age of mother) o Far more likely to cohabit without getting married o Less likely to divorce! Plateau in the 80s o We're more likely to have children outside of marriage Chapter Thirteen - Education  Paradox: although school is supposed to provide equal opportunity, it ends up sorting and stratifying students by the backgrounds from which they come  Education is the process through which society provides its members with knowledge, values and skills - the means by which we develop general and specific academic, social, and cultural tools  What is the purpose of education? o Manifest functions are clearly apparent. Written on paper  Subject matter/specific skills - like multiplication, carpentry, reading  Human capital! Knowledge and skills that make you more marketable/worth more $ o Latent functions are potential or hidden  By-products of the educational process, like norms, values, and goals that we gain by being in school or classes (like obedience, conformity, competition)  Hidden curriculum = non-academic socialization and training that takes place in school  Ex: Not taking attendance in class could mean the professor is trying to teach you how to be responsible for your own education  Ex: How to write research papers, learning strategies  Possible roles of schooling in society o Schooling is a process of training - fits manifest idea. Transmission of knowledge and skills. Society needs people with these skills (functionalism) o Schooling is a process of assimilation - fits latent idea. Teaches people how to be active members of society by teaching a common language, culture, values (think saying the pledge of allegiance at school...teaches us how to assimilate in America) o Schooling as credentialism -- schooling provides a means from certain people to distinguish themselves from others  People in positions of power tend to move the educational bar further and further as society catches up (like it wasn't common to graduate from high school, but now that it is, it's important to graduate from college, or now go to grad school) << ISN'T matched by an increasing complication of jobs... so. The same job that used to require a HS diploma now requires a college diploma. WTF?!  Content of education doesn't matter...the degree/diploma does o Schooling is a vehicle for social reproduction << different hidden curricula. Focuses on $ resources  Conflict theory argues that schools perpetuate social and economic inequalities across generations - poor kids go to poor schools and learn how to be a low income adult, on average  Students from different class backgrounds are provided different types of education, which prepares them for different types of jobs --- Schools sort students based on social class and then teach the social/personality skills necessary to fulfill the job roles of those classes o Schooling as cultural reproduction << rewards certain cultural norms (also conflict perspective)  Pierre Bourdieu said that schools reproduce inequality by rewarding certain cultural norms over others... cultural/social capital, like preferences, speech patterns, experiences, and habits, are tied to social class  Schools value the cultural capital of the middle and upper class students/families, which puts poor/working class students at a disadvantage  SATs sometimes measure cultural capital...think "A symphony is to a composter as a book is to a(n)..." vs. "if you throw two dice and a seven is showing on the top, what is facing down? snake eyes, box cars, eleven, seven..." << you're not going to see the second question on the SATs  FYI they took these ^^ kinds of questions off the SATs  Class and parental investments -- parent's are increasingly using personal resources to supplement their children's opportunities to learn and develop. There is a huge disparity between annual $ spent on enrichment between top and bottom income quintiles, obviously. BUT, the gap has been getting bigger over time (flat for the bottom end, but wealthier families keep putting MORE money into this stuff)  The Coleman Report (James Coleman) -- it's not just about financial resources. You can't just give more money to low income schools. It will help, but what's really important is understanding the composition of the school. Learn about the SES of kids at a school, and it will help us understand the gap o Found that disadvantaged black kids do better in integrated classrooms...prompted widespread desegregation efforts  Before the Brown v. Board case (outlawing racially segregated schools), there was De jure segregation -- mandated by law that schools be racially segregated o De facto segregation = in reality, the Brown v. Board case didn't change much. There isn't segregation by law anymore, but segregation by practice. It's a natural result of how we place kids in school by location  ***Because of residential segregation, we have school segregation***  In 1974, a judge found the Boston School Committee guilty of de jure segregation and ordered the schools to desegregate by the fall. They put mandated busing in effect, bussing black kids to white schools and such (fierce resistance to busing from white neighborhoods of South Boston and Charlestown). It was awful - people throwing rocks, getting stabbed, swearing at black kids, police officers, parents... o RACISM! Also about an issue of class.... poor kids were bussed into other poor districts. This never affected the middle/upper class o Today, Boston has three zones, so as to cross racial community lines (instead of just shipping out black kids, make everyone move). If you're in the North Zone, you have 30 elementary schools in that zone to send your kids to... as opposed to you live on X street so you go to Y school  "Choice" movements in urban public schools - Boston, like other major cities, have been implementing more and more choice in what school kids go to. These programs have various forms, but has two basic premises: o Giving parents more options for schooling will increase their ability to enroll kids in quality schools, thereby improving educational equity o Market competition will result -- schools will be forced to respond to the "choice" by trying to be better so people choose the school o Options in the choice movement = vouchers (parents use public funds to send their kids to the private or public school of their choice), charter schools (publicly funded and created in poorly performing districts as alternatives to local public schools), and magnet schools (not tied to any one community, specialized, like art schools, science schools) o Pro: It gives poor kids a chance! Geared toward lower-income families, in theory o Con: In reality, the families who are most likely to take advantage of the choices, tend to be the more advantaged families - creaming effect - the top goes to private/charter schools  Racial achievement gap - there aren't the same graduation rates, or college attendance rates o Reasons for it could include SES, fear of acting white (reluctance to excel in school and selling out your race), stereotype threat (if you're seen as stupid, you conform to it, or Asians try really hard because they're supposed to be smart) and even IQ (Murray and Herrnstein (1994) argued that blacks have inherently lower IQ)  Another gap is the gender gap! In all ethnicities, women had a higher percentage of bachelor's degrees earned than men did. So why the hell do men always earn more!!!!! Except, women tend to earn degrees in fields that pay less than the fields men pick... Chapter Fourteen - Economy  Paradox: the more one earns, the more one can afford leisure -- however, the more one earns, the more it costs to not work in terms of forgone wages  An economy is a set of relationships and processes that helps a society organize what it produces, distributes and consumes << central institution in all societies, influences most other aspects of social life  How economies have changed, from other 10,000 years ago to the 70s and plus -- Subsistence economy -- agricultural economy -- industrial economy-- postindustrial economy o Subsistence economy = hunter-gatherer, nomadic. Lived off the land, moved when needed. There were no excess resources, no need for rules of exchange. Everyone has the same amount as everyone else o Agricultural economy = learned how to plow land, no longer nomadic. People start storing excess resources, people begin to specialize, and markets develop where goods and services are exchanged o Industrial economy = created with the Industrial Revolution - efficient (new machines and technologies), centralization (move from family farms to factories), specialization (see Taylor/Ford below), wage labor (paid regular amounts for completing tasks, not based on quality of materials/# of units completed), separation of work and home (you "go" to work)  Taylorism is scientific management - efficient way of organizing production into a series of tasks that can be timed and managed  Fordism is a system originated by Henry Ford for the Model T, based on assembly lines and mass production o Post-Industrial economy = shift from economy based on production of goods -- the economy is based on the production of ideas (knowledge economy), automated machinery, work is less oriented around the production of goods and more on the services surrounding the goods, and global production...raw materials come from all over the world, production can be outsources, knowledge work is typically done in wealthy countries  Ex: Google! Facebook! You can't buy a Google, you can't touch Google  Problem - work is less rooted in time and space, less need for human labor (no need to go to work and stay from 9-5)  Types of economic systems include capitalism and socialism  Capitalism is categorized by private ownership (of resources, machines, companies), free/open market that is based on competition (in prices, production and distribution of goods), pursuit of profit (makin money) o Laissez-faire capitalism -- no government interference o State capitalism -- government regulates and constrains market o Welfare capitalism -- includes social welfare programs, gov't regulates essential services  Socialism is characterized by collective (public) ownership (of resources, property, companies...and goods/services are available to all), central planning by the government (controls all production and distribution), collective goals (less focus on individual profit motive, focus on the common good)  Marx believed that capitalism was fundamentally flawed and doomed to fail o Economic systems that are based on private property divided people into unequal and competing classes - and eventually the masses would rebel against the owners o Argued that workers would be alienated from (and thus dominated by) their labor in multiple ways - they don't have complete knowledge of what they are making, they have no control over the process, no one can have complete ownership of what they're doing - natural creativity is stifled and
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