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Lecture 13

Drugs & Society Lecture 13 Notes (3.19.14)

6 Pages

Course Code
SOCL 1295
Lisa Ferruccio

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Lecture 13 1/15/14 11:48 AM The House I Live In notes: • Creates new consumer- prison industry • Compensation/promotion practices favor drug arrests • Prison industrial complex (certain towns rely on prison employment) • Budget for the WOD- first went towards prevention, but ended up going towards punitive efforts for political reasons Today’s Agenda WOD Foreign Policy • Narcocentric • Three pillars • Issues of sovereignty Bolivia & Coca & Cocaine • Cocaleros • Cocaine stabilization • Zero Coca policy • Evo Morales • Coca strategy today • Subsistence farmers Does Coca = Cocaine? In Bolivia, NO In U.S., YES WOD: Foreign Policy [Goals: Stopping cultivation, production, import, sale & consumption] • In many instances US international policy has become ‘narcocentric’▯ the U.S. involvement with foreign governments (foreign relations, global trade, etc.) in Latin America and Asia is largely driven by drugs: o Create economic agreements with drug producing countries (Mexico, Colombia and Afghanistan) whereby cooperating foreign governments are greatly rewarded (with financial aid and diplomatic support); o Foreign governments that are not deemed to be cooperating to adequate standards are politically ostracized and aid is often cut off (Bolivia) o Supply-side strategy Three Pillars 1. Extradition: • Residents of LatAm countries tried in U.S. courts • Fear of strict sentencing intended as deterrent • Undermines judicial systems and sovereignty 2. Militarization: • In many parts of LatAm, Central Asia, and West Africa, several thousand soldiers and members of the secret intelligence community are actively involved in international anti-narcotic efforts • Human rights issues (critiques say human rights are violated) 3. Eradication: • Stop cultivation, production, and transportation at its source; particularly starting with crop eradication Bolivia & Cocaine • World’s third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru) • “We’ve seen a 70% growth in the cocaine industry in recent years. That means that, today, the coca-cocaine circuit is the third largest source of revenue for the country, right after the exports of traditional products such as hydrocarbons and mining.” o Jose Carlos Campero, a leading political economist Coca and Andean Culture • The Coca leaf has a special role in Andean cultures: o Coca farming was protected by the Inca royal family o One of the Gods worshiped was “Mama Coca” o The leaf has for centuries traditionally been brewed in tea to stave odd hunger and fatigue and combat altitude sickness • Mass coca consumption arose with forced Indian labor in Potosi silver mine: o Allowed Indians to work in darkness, extreme temperatures, and chronic hunger • Nutritional importance: o Spaniards tried to suppress coca, but deprived of the vitamins, may Indians lost their teeth, were unable to chew, and died Coca Today – Uses • Tea • Miners still chew it—hunger suppressant/nutritional value • Buy a bowl of leaves and chew at many bars • Ladies at the market have huge garbage bags of coca leave for sale—inexpensive The Economics of Coca • Political Economy: Due to closures of tin mines (weak tin market) and impact of neoliberal reforms thousands of miners and peasants migrated to sub-tropics to grow coca. o Reforms: Austerity measures )no government subsidies); privatization of state-owned businesses, etc. • By 1985 Bolivia was the 2 nd major source country for coca leaf and cocaine paste. • Coca production contributed $500 million to economy: o “cocaine stabilization” o Sales of coca leaf amounted to approximately US$265 million in 2009, representing 14% of all agricultural sales and 2% of Bolivia’s GDP War on Drugs goes to Bolivia • President Paz Estenstorro passed laws in mid-1980s making cultivation of coca leaf illegal • He agreed to a militarization of the “war on drugs” and U.S. military intervention • If countries did not comply with the U.S., they could be decertified and aid cut off • The World Bank/IMF insisted on drug eradication as a main condition of loans The Cocalero Movement • In the 1980s & 1990s indigenous and peasant movements opposed the eradication and criminalization of coca o T
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