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Class Notes for Earth and Planetary Sciences at Northwestern University

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EARTH 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Rare Earth Element, Lanthanum, Europium
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15 Mineral Resources Thursday, November 9, 2017 11:01 AM If its not grown, its mined Multicomponent approach to separating with fossil fuels Reduce consumption Sequester CO2 Develop nuclear Deploy mixture renewables REE =...

Earth and Planetary Sciences
EARTH 101
Steve Jacobsen
EARTH 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: National Ignition Facility, Entrada Sandstone, Uinta Mountains
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16 Geology of the National Parks Tuesday, November 14, 2017 11:01 AM QUIZ REVIEW China produces more wind, photovoltaic, hydroelectric than any other country Solar thermal panels take heat to heat water PV is the transfer...

Earth and Planetary Sciences
EARTH 101
Steve Jacobsen
EARTH 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Binding Energy, Smog, Alpha Decay
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12 Nuclear Energy Thursday, October 26, 2017 11:00 AM Oil, NG, and Coal make up 80 of our electricity generation Currently, nuclear accounts for 10 of our electricity generation One of Illinois primary sources of energy i...

Earth and Planetary Sciences
EARTH 101
Steve Jacobsen
EARTH 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Solar Water Heating, Wind Turbine, Renewable Energy
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13 Renewables 1: Solar and Wind Power Thursday, November 2, 2017 11:00 AM Renewable energy source that you can use without end Energy quantifies the amount of work that a certain force can do Stored has the potential to ...

Earth and Planetary Sciences
EARTH 101
Steve Jacobsen
EARTH 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Valence Electron, British Thermal Unit, Kilowatt Hour
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11 Coal and Natural Gas Tuesday, October 24, 2017 11:01 AM Oil, coal, and natural gas all have carbon in common Valence electrons unfilled or outer shell electrons which are available to react when chemical reactions occ...

Earth and Planetary Sciences
EARTH 101
Steve Jacobsen
EARTH 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Continental Crust, Polar Vortex, Oceanic Crust
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9 Climate Tuesday, October 17, 2017 10:59 AM Low viscosity magma that runs down the hillside (Basaltic Magma) Composite Volcanoes constructed from multiple eruptions occurring over many hundreds or thousands or millions o...

Earth and Planetary Sciences
EARTH 101
Steve Jacobsen
EARTH 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Great Oxygenation Event, Banded Iron Formation, Igneous Rock
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5 Earth Materials Tuesday, October 3, 2017 11:03 AM Minerals Rocks Sediments (sand, silt, mud, clay) Melts (and glasses) Minerals and life have a connection Even humans grow minerals in their bodies Did minerals and life ...

Earth and Planetary Sciences
EARTH 101
Steve Jacobsen
EARTH 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Subduction, Stratovolcano, Silicate Minerals
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8 Geologic Hazards II, Volcanoes Thursday, October 12, 2017 10:59 AM We can predict volcanoes better than we can predict earthquakes Total amount of heat coming out of earth = 46TW Magma is continuously being created at M...

Earth and Planetary Sciences
EARTH 101
Steve Jacobsen
EARTH 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Seismic Wave, Pyroxene, Oceanic Crust
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4 Composition Continued Thursday, September 28, 2017 11:14 AM Meteorites Stony crusts of destroyed (differentiated) planets Iron cores of destroyed (differentiated) planets StonyIron coremantle boundaries of destroyed (d...

Earth and Planetary Sciences
EARTH 101
Steve Jacobsen
EARTH 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Seismogram, Sound, Deuterium
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3 Composition and Structure of the Earth Tuesday, September 26, 2017 11:02 AM Is the frequency of hurricanes increasing? If so, why? Whether or not you see a trend depends on what you include in your data set No clear tre...

Earth and Planetary Sciences
EARTH 101
Steve Jacobsen
EARTH 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Plate Tectonics, Mafic, Extrusive Rock
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6 The Rock Cycle and Plate Tectonics Thursday, October 5, 2017 11:05 AM Incongruent Melting (how you put Basalt and Peridotite back together) partial melting of a rock produces a melt of different composition (one part l...

Earth and Planetary Sciences
EARTH 101
Steve Jacobsen
EARTH 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Peak Oil, Tight Oil, Pelagic Sediment
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10 Peak Oil? Thursday, October 19, 2017 10:57 AM Hubberts Peak the point halfway: half the oil has been producedconsumed US consumes about 18 million barrels of oilday Today, the US produces MORE oil than it imports We ar...

Earth and Planetary Sciences
EARTH 101
Steve Jacobsen
EARTH 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Stress (Mechanics), Thrust Fault, Compressive Stress
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7 Earthquakes and Tsunamis Tuesday, October 10, 2017 10:58 AM Are earthquakes predictable? Liquefactionwhen a saturated or partially saturated soil substantially loses strength and stiffness in response to applied stress ...

Earth and Planetary Sciences
EARTH 101
Steve Jacobsen
EARTH 101 Lecture 2: 2 - Age and Formation of Earth and Moon
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2 Age and Formation of Earth and Moon Thursday, September 21, 2017 10:56 AM Relationship between climate change and hurricanes Is the frequency of Cat5 hurricanes increasing? If so, why? Plate boundaries Divergent Converg...

Earth and Planetary Sciences
EARTH 101
Steve Jacobsen
EARTH 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Paleolimnology, Biogeochemistry, Earth Science
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1 What Earth Scientists Do Tuesday, September 19, 2017 4:04 PM Earth science geology, chemistry, biology, and physics of our planet Application of all sciences to earth Earth scientists do: Seismology o Economic value in ...

Earth and Planetary Sciences
EARTH 101
Steve Jacobsen

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