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Lecture 4

PSYC 2160 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Nonverbal Communication, Social Desirability Bias, Gestalt Psychology


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2160
Professor
Piccone
Lecture
4

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SET 4
social perception
the study of how we form impressions of and make inferences about other people
nonverbal communication
The way in which people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words;
nonverbal cues that include:
(irrepressible & almost impossible to control)
facial expressions
tone of voice
gestures
body position and movement
use of touch
gaze
encode
to express or emit nonverbal behavior, such as smiling or patting someone on the back
evolutionary finds that all people encode and decode the same. Smiles frowns, other signs of
sadness are universal
decode
To interpret the meaning of the nonverbal behavior other people express, such as deciding that a
pat on the back was an expression of condescension and not kindness
affect blends
a facial expression in which one part of the face registers one emotion while another part of the
face registers a different emotion
*though only 6 expressions, there are unlimited combinations
Example: joy + sorrow= bittersweet or fear + anger
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display rules
culturally determined rules about which nonverbal behaviors are appropriate to display
emblems
Nonverbal gestures that have well-understood definitions within a given culture; they usually
have direct verbal translations, such as the "OK" sign
implicit personality theory
a type of schema people use to group various kinds of personality traits together; belief that when
people possess some traits, they are more likely to possess others as well
- example, many people believe that someone who is kind is generous as well
attribution theory
a description of the way in which people explain the causes of their own and other people's
behavior
internal attribution
the inference that a person is behaving in a certain way because of something about the person,
such as attitude, character, or personality
external attribution
the inference that a person is behaving a certain way because of something about the situation he
or she is in; the assumption is that most people would respond the same way in that situation
covariation model
A theory that states that to form an attribution about what caused a person's behavior, we
systematically note the pattern between the presence or absence of possible causal factors and
whether or not the behavior occurs
consensus information
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information about the extent to which other people behave the same way toward the same
stimulus as the actor does
-Do all or most of the students in the class
treat the professor this way?
distinctiveness information
Information about the extent to which one particular actor behaves in the same way to different
stimuli
-Does this student only react to this
professor in this manner?
consistency information
Information about the extent to which the behavior between one actor and one stimulus is the
same across time and circumstances
-Does this student always react to the
professor in this manner regardless of the
situation?
correspondence bias
the tendency to infer that people's behavior corresponds to (matches) their disposition
(personality)
perceptual salience
the seeming importance of information that is the focus of people's attention
two-step process of attribution
Analyzing another person's behavior first by making an automatic internal attribution and only
then thinking about possible situational reasons for the behavior, after which one may adjust the
original internal attribution
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