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Class Notes for Anthropology at New York University

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ANTH-UA 2 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Paranthropus Boisei, Robert Broom, Oh 5
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Robust Australopiths Tuesday, November 8th, 2016 Paranthropus - "Robust Australopiths" → Heavy chewing complex ○ Posterior teeth are huge (large premolars) ○ Anterior teeth: tiny ○ Large man...

Anthropology
ANTH-UA 2
Scott Alan Williams
ANTH-UA 2 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Prognathism, Sagittal Crest, Brain Size
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Origin & Evolution of Homo Thursday, November 10th, 2016 Earliest Homo → Ethiopia → 2.3 - 2.8 Ma → More parabolic dental arcade (humans) → No particular species assignment → Name a new species based on de...

Anthropology
ANTH-UA 2
Scott Alan Williams
ANTH-UA 2 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Australopithecus, Paranthropus, Kenyanthropus
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Evolution & Dispersal of Homo erectus Thursday, November 10th, 2016 Homoerectus in Southeast Asia → Indonesia → First discovered by EugeneDubois in 1891 ○ Femur and skull cap from Trinil, Java ...

Anthropology
ANTH-UA 2
Scott Alan Williams
ANTH-UA 2 Lecture Notes - Lecture 21: Phalanx Bone, Denisovan, Melanesians
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Modern Human Origins Cont. Tuesday, December 8th, 2016 Morphological Evidence → Shows continuity in some areas across the globe ○ Australia → "Intermediate-looking" individuals → Earliest...

Anthropology
ANTH-UA 2
Scott Alan Williams
ANTH-UA 2 Lecture Notes - Lecture 19: Neanderthal, Prepared-Core Technique, Levallois Technique
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Homo heidelbergensis and Relatives Tuesday, November 29th, 2016 Archaic Humans → Earliest potential archaics ○ Sima de Elephante, Atapuerca Mountains, Spain ○ 1.2 Ma ○ Younger individuals ...

Anthropology
ANTH-UA 2
Scott Alan Williams
ANTH-UA 2 Lecture Notes - Lecture 21: Grave Goods, Chauvet Cave, Ochre
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Modern Human Origins Tuesday, December 8th, 2016 Patterns of Injury → Paleolithic Mousterian tools → Close-quarters big game hunting Neandertal Behavior → Cannibalism evidence? → Ritual de-fleshing, butchery? ...

Anthropology
ANTH-UA 2
Scott Alan Williams
ANTH-UA 2 Lecture Notes - Lecture 20: Skhul And Qafzeh Hominins, Postcrania, Mastoid Part Of The Temporal Bone
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Neandertals and Modern Humans Thursday, December 1st, 2016 History of Neandertals → "Old Man" of La Chapelle, France (1908) → Marcellin Boule's Neandertals ○ Stooped posture, shuffling gait → Suffered from...

Anthropology
ANTH-UA 2
Scott Alan Williams
ANTH-UA 2 Lecture Notes - Lecture 18: Hip, Microcephaly, Australopithecus
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Homo Erectus and Relatives Tuesday, November 17th, 2016 Out of Africa → Dmanisi Hominins ○ Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia ○ 1.7 Ma → 5+ Homoerectus-like individuals → Small brains (< 800 cc) → Body i...

Anthropology
ANTH-UA 2
Scott Alan Williams
ANTH-UA 2 Lecture Notes - Lecture 22: Polygenism, Monogenism, Samuel George Morton
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Race and Human Variation Final Lecture Exam 3: Not cumulative, study guide today, turn in labs at study groups, fill out evaluations Human Variation ● Linnaeus: Systema Naturae, 10th ed. (1758) ● Homo sapiens ...

Anthropology
ANTH-UA 2
Scott Alan Williams
ANTH-UA 2 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Toe, Foramen Magnum, Humerus
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The Earliest (Punitive) Hominins Tuesday, November 1st, 2016 ● Divergence Times ○ Uses the "molecular clock" ○ Rates of molecular change ○ Calibrated with fossils ○ 5-7 Ma ...

Anthropology
ANTH-UA 2
Scott Alan Williams
ANTH-UA 2 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Pelvis, Lumbar Vertebrae, Foramen Magnum
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Hominin Anatomy and Origins Tuesday, October 25th, 2016 Anatomy of Bipedalism → Skull ○ Foramen magnum: anterior position on the skull base ○ → Reduced musculature in the neck ○ E.g. Trape...

Anthropology
ANTH-UA 2
Scott Alan Williams
ANTH-UA 2 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Temporal Muscle, Toe, Afar Triangle
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Australopiths Thursday, November 3rd, 2016 The Earliest (Punitive) Hominins Cont. → Late Miocene/Early Pliocene (7-4.4 Ma) → East African Rift Valley ○ Orrorin ○ Ardipithecus → Central African ...

Anthropology
ANTH-UA 2
Scott Alan Williams
ANTH-UA 2 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Archicebus, Adapidae, Necrolemur
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Primate Origins and Evolution Thursday, October 20th, 2016 → Evolved in Northern Continents (Southeast Asia) ○ Closest relatives: Colugos and Tree Shrews → Purgatorious & Plesiadapiformes ...

Anthropology
ANTH-UA 2
Scott Alan Williams
ANTH-UA 2 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Sivapithecus, Humerus, Gigantopithecus
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Human Anatomy and Bipedalism Tuesday, October 25th, 2016 Recap Primate Evolution Early Anthropoids → 45 - 35 Ma → South East Asia and North Africa → New World Monkey and Old World Monkey → NWM typ...

Anthropology
ANTH-UA 2
Scott Alan Williams
ANTH-UA 2 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Heterogametic Sex, Reproductive Isolation, Ring Species
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Species and Speciation Tuesday, October 18th, 2016 Types of Selection → Directional: selection against one extreme → Stabilizing: selection against both extremes → Disruptive: selection for both extremes → Disrupt...

Anthropology
ANTH-UA 2
Scott Alan Williams

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