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Class notes - Lectures 1-9.docx

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New York University
Mark Siegal

Chapter 1 942013 63700 AM Office hours Monday 300pm400pm 12 Waverly Place Room 306The relationship between structure and function is crucial when understanding biologyEach cell type is specialized to do a particular job Red blood cells dont have a nucleus Microvilli have a particular function for nutrient uptakeAll these different human cell types come from the coming together of two different kind of cells egg and spermHow do cells know where they areThey listen to each other and their external environment they send and respond to signals o Protein on the outside of the cell that receives a single and transduce that signal into the inside All cells are aware of where they are in the bodyo There will be a protein that is responsible for receiving a signal from the outside and sending it to the cell via other proteinso This signaling process is very coordinated between several proteins depending on the signalo There are layers of complexityo This is called the signaling cascade signaling transductionProkaryotes and eukaryotes prokaryotes consist of anything that are not eukaryotes Organisms of our daily experience are only the surface of the organisms that are in biologyo Enormous tree of life that has organisms we dont even think aboutProkaryotic cells Consists of a nucleoid inner membrane outer membrane and cell wallo Nucleoid is the genetic material DNA that is loosely organized in the middle of the cello Double membrane systemEukaryotic cell Consists of nucleus golgi vesicles lysosome mitochondrion and endoplasmic reticulumo Cytoplasm is far more complicatedo Nucleus has the genetic material that is organized in the cell Not uniformit has structureMolecular and cell biology spans a huge size range Nanometers to meters 1010 to 104A typical cell is around 10 micronso Protein molecules are much smaller around ten nanometers 270 million proteins inside of every cell All diseases can be linked to the change in one genome for example sickle cell diseasebase change in the DNAa single change in an amino acid in a proteindifferent shape in a hemoglobin moleculesa very different shape in red blood cellssickle cell diseasesThe number of copies of DNA per cell in our bodies thats two In some prokaryotes thats one is a vast range of molecule numbers as well Each of our cells have 6 feet of DNA Multiply that by ten trillion cells Proteins are in extraordinarily high numbers too Many copies of hemoglobin per red blood cell we are basically a hemoglobin factory We need exquisitely sensitive methods for detecting particular proteinsmolecules inside proteinsWe need something super specific for example detecting an infection at an early stageo HIVdetecting HIV agents per blood cell this is 11000 so you need something very sensitive that can detect one in one thousand cells and you need something specific so it can pick out the thing youre interested inthere are SO MANY other thingsBiological molecules differ in size shape and function The difference between a hemoglobin protein insulin protein enzymes etc has to do with the structure of their cells Model organismsorganisms that are used for experiments all over the worldo Biology has a certain kind of universalityo Mice fruit flies viruses There are commonalities between species Example a gene in flies that has to do with eye development if you remove the gene there is no eye Remove this gene in humans and we get amoridia less of an eye in a humanVast span of timeweve had a short flash of time compared to all the diversity in EarthThe rise of nonmodel organisms Now people are directly studying organisms they are interested in Increasing number of diverse species using sophisticated moleculargenetic cellbiological and genetic material
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