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PhyPHYSICS IGCSE sics IGCSE Revision Guide.pdf

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PHYSICS IGCSE REVISION GUIDEThis is to help you cover all the parts of the course Use this with the syllabus and your notesWhen you need to use your books use the index to find the relevant chaptersStrength of SolidsStretching springs Hookes Law Fk x ext Elastic behaviour means returning to shape Plastic behaviour notreturning to shape Elastic Limit Forces between atoms are like springs Using Hookes law for wires Tensionand compression in bridges and other simple structuresTurning Effects momentsF x Dunit Nm Newtonmetres No overall moment if clockwise moment anticlockwise moments Questions for seesaws and other structuresVectors having size and direction eg forces Scalars only having size eg mass Adding vectors asnose to tail arrows or as the sides of a parallelogram with the diagonal the total vectorParticles in MotionKinetic theory meaning particles in motion Hotter means faster Increasing heat and molecular speedbreaking bonds to change state Cooling losing heat and decreasing speed to make bonds to change state Names of6 state changes Diagrams of solids liquids and gases Evaporation causing cooling losing particles at the surfaceof the liquidEvaporation increased by temperature surface area and wind with reasons why in terms of particlesleaving the liquid33Density units water as I gcm 1000 kgm Volume of irregular shapes found by immersionHow movement of gas particles causes air pressure Why hotter faster molecules cause more pressure at the samevolume and cause expansion by making the same pressure at higher volume Pressure is proportional to Kelvintemperaturep k x T Changing Kelvin into Celcius C273K Absolute zero as still gas molecules with zerokinetic energy at 273 C and zero KelvinMotioncoveredtimeEquations of speeddistancetaken and accelerationchange of speedtime taken with units of2metres seconds ms and rns Average speed as middle speed between two extremes Deceleration withnegative acceleration valuesDistancetime graphs showing stationary and steady speeds with constant slopes Meaning of gradient of graph asspeedSpeedtime graphs showing stopped steady speeds acceleration and decelerationDistance as area under the speedtime graph in the units used Gradient as acceleration1Distance travelled for accelerating objects as acc x time2 Used for falling objects with acc1ONkg2210msVelocity changing for objects moving in circles at a steady speed with an acceleration to the centre of the circle dueto a centripetal forceTimes for experiments always inaccurate so repeating and averaging giving more accuracyTicker timers making dots every 002s examples showing steady speed and acceleration and used tomeasure speedForce and MotionHow opposing forces cause acceleration deceleration or constant speed including stopped in theirdirection Forces on moving cars and falling objects parachute affecting their motion Fmass xacceleration mass in kilograms force in Newtons with Fdifference between opposing forces Top speeddue to air resistance and friction increasing to equal engine forcesForces act in pairs with equal size but opposite directions so forces must act on two objects
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