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Lecture 1 and 2 .docx

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Ron Callahan

Chemistry September 6, 2013 Solids- Volume-definite Shape- definite Compressibility- very low Closeness of particles- very close Motion of particles- Highly restricted Liquids- Volume-indefinite Shape- takes shape of container Compressibility- low Closeness of particles- particles interacting but molecules has mobility Motion of particles- Somewhat restricted Gases- Volume- indefinite Shape- indefinite Compressibility- high Closeness of particles- not close at all Motion of particles- unrestricted Matter- Anything that occupies space and has mass Mass- The amount of matter in a substance Substance (Pure)- Can be an element or a compound Element- On of the 108 building blocks of all matter elements can not be broken down into smaller units by simple chemical means (NA, H, O) Compound- a form of matter in which 2 or more elements are held together in a fixed ratio by chemical bonds Pressure- Force per unit area Atmospheric pressure- pressure exerted on the earth’s surface due to the gases of the air colliding with the earth Melting point- temperature when a solid changes to a liquid Boiling point- the temperature that a liquid will boil at normal atmospheric pressure Boiling- the process where the temperature has risen enough so that all molecules can overcome the attractive forms that hold together the liquid molecules, to form the gaseous state Vaporization- temperature where a liquid changes the gaseous state (molecules near the surface of the liquid are converted to the gaseous state) Scientific Notation 10^1 =10 10^0 = 0 10^2= 10 x 10= 100 10^-2= 1/10 x 1/10= 1/100= 0.01 8.3 x 10^-9= 8.3/1000000000= 0.00000000083 10^2 x 10^3= 10^5 10^2/10^3= 10^-1 Significant figures- the certain figures plus the first uncertain digit in a measurement 3.2- 2 sig figs (all non zero) 1.304- 4 sig figs (0 between non zero digits are always significant) 6.8900- 5 sig figs (all zeros after decimal point are significant) Zeros in front of the first non zero digit are not significant 0.16- 2 sig figs 0.00313- 3 sig figs 3000- 1 sig figs Units Length- meter (m) Mass- Kilogram (kg) Time- seconds (s) Temperature- Kelvin Mega- M-10^6 Kilo- K-10^3 Deci- d- 1/10 (10^-1) Centi- c- 1/100 (10^-2) Milli- m- 0.001= (10^-2) Micro- m – 0.000001 (10^-6) Nano- n – 0.000000001 (10^-9) Volume- length x width x height Density- mass/volume (grams/mL) C= K -273 K=C + 273 F= (9/5C)+ 32 C= (F-32) 5/9 68 F= 20 C 1 inch = 2.54 cm 1.00 lb = 454 g 1.00 kg = 2.20 lb 1.00 oz = 28.4 g 1.00 km = 0.621 mile 1,000 cal = 4,184 joule 1 atm = 760 mm Hg 4 quarts = 1 gallon 12 in = 1 foot 3 feet = 1 yard 1 liter = 1.06 quart Joules- amount of energy very small amount Millimeter- mercury and atmosphere Hg The proportion method of conversions 1. Write down the conversion factor as an equality being sure to give units 2. Place the 3 known quantity under the proper unit, put the unknown quantity as X under its proper place 3. Cross multiply and solve for X 26.8 inches  ? cm 12.6 miles  ? millimeters 1 in = 2.54 cm .621 miles = 1 km X=20.3 1000 m = 1 km 26.8 in X 12.6 miles X km X 20.3km When you have a # with a certain number of sig figs you have to have that many in your answer Carbon C Fluorine F Hydrogen H Sulfur S Iodine I Nitrogen N Oxygen O Phosphate P Aluminum Al Barium Ba Bromine Br Calcium Ca Helium He Lithium Li Chlorine Ch Chromium Magnesium MG Munganese Mn Platinum Pt Zinc Zn Copper Cu Lead Pb Mercury Hg Potassium K Silver Ag Sodium Na Tin Sn Metals - Good conductors of electricity - Malleable - Ductile (can be pulled into wires) - Shiny surface Non-metals - Brittle - Non shiny - Poor conductors September 13 Atom- the smallest possible piece of an element that has the properties of that element The
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