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Lecture 10

EURO-UA 511 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Existentialism, Surrealism, CollectivismPremium

4 pages98 viewsSpring 2016

European and Mediterranean Studies
Course Code
Euro History

of 4
1. Russia in the Early 20th Century
a. Civil War – Whites (un-united not-communists) vs. Reds (communists)
a.i. Britain and US are helping Whites (Russians don’t forget that)
b. Starts USSR with Lenin as leader (totalitarian)
b.i. Dictatorship of proletariat
b.i.1. Need strong government to get to Marxist ideal
b.ii. New Economic Plan – allows free enterprise in country but not the city
b.ii.1. Guarantees food – countryside farmers can sell food in
capitalist way
b.ii.2. Kulaks – peasant class (rich-ish peasants)…decent number
of them
c. Trotsky is internationalist/Stalin is socialism in one country (AKA totalitarianism)
c.i. Stalin cares more about expansion of his power than Trotsky or Lenin
ever did
d. Stalin
d.i. Complete control of economy
d.i.1. Kulaks – fat cat capitalists that he exterminates
d.i.2. Collectivizes agriculture (kill the people who know how to
farm and makes agriculture inefficient)
d.i.2.a. Population decline
d.i.3. 5 Year Plans (28-33, 33-38)
d.i.3.a. Good industrial base – jump start industrialization
d.i.3.b. Horrible conditions for average laborer
d.i.4. Cult of Personality
d.i.4.a. Becoming paranoid about personal threats to his
own power
d.i.4.a.i. Anyone who is a threat to him is killed or sent away
d.i.4.a.ii. Goes to war just to take some land – real politik
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d.i.4.b. Kills generals so that army is inefficient
d.i.4.b.i. Finland almost defeat Russia – which is pathetic
d.i.4.b.i.1. Shows that Russian army has really
gone downhill
d.i.4.c. Church gets repressed because totalitarian
ideology runs from atheist roots
d.i.4.d. Suppresses nationalism
2. Age of Anxiety (1920’s)
a. Art: Nonrepresentational
a.i. Moving away from looking like a photograph
a.ii. Cubism – Picasso
a.iii. Surrealism
a.iv. Salvidor Dali
a.v. Dadaism – doing everything that is as anti-convention/norm as can be
b. Major pessimism
b.i. Europe is in decline (economies, populations, death, etc.)
b.ii. Had faith in everything shattered
b.iii. Feels like world is ending
c. Vitkinstein – philosopher
c.i. Says you can never know what meaning of life, God, etc. is
c.ii. Leads to existentialism later on
c.ii.1. Life has no meaning – it’s what you make of it
d. Joyce – Stream of Consciousness
e. People saw democracy and capitalism as having failed
e.i. Fascism and communism seen as more attractive
3. Interwar Period (1918 – 1939)
a. Politics:
a.i. Liberal democracy falls prey to dictatorship
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a.i.1. Dictators – communists, fascists, radicals, reactionaries,
right wing militarists (i.e. Franco), monarchs, etc.
a.i.1.a. All agreed that Western Democracy was not good
for them
a.ii. Ireland (national republic) and Vatican state (dictatorship)
a.iii. 1922: Irish free state established
a.iii.1. Close to Britain
a.iii.2. Idea of home rule
a.iii.2.a. Autonomous province of UK
a.iii.2.a.i. Severs all ties with UK in 1949
a.iv. Totalitarianism takes root
a.iv.1. Fascism
a.iv.1.a. Italy (Mussolini)
a.iv.1.b. Germany (Hitler)
a.iv.1.c. Spain
a.iv.2. Communism
a.iv.2.a. USSR remains communist state
a.iv.3. Nationalist-Socialist ideology
a.iv.3.a. Communism and Fascism developed ideologies
with a blend of nationalist and socialist elements
a.iv.3.a.i. Bolsheviks adopt extreme Russian nationalism
b. Similarities between Communism and Fascism
b.i. Dualist party-state
b.ii. “Fuhrership” – Leadership Principle
b.iii. Gangsterism
b.iv. Bureaucracy
b.v. Propaganda Aesthetics of Power
b.vii. Dialectical enemy
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