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Lecture 2

EURO-UA 511 Lecture 2: The SCIENTIFC REVOLUTION
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3 Pages
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Spring 2016

Department
European and Mediterranean Studies
Course Code
EURO-UA 511
Professor
Euro History
Lecture
2

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The SCIENTIFC REVOLUTION
I. Science in 1500
a. Based on Aristotle, outdated, Geocentric Model
II. Reasons for Scientific Revolution
a. Renaissance spurred scientific exploration
b. Universities were giving people educations
c. Better tools built (telescope)
III. Copernican Hypothesis
a. Heliocentric Model (against Catholic and Protestant views)
IV. Post-Copernicus
a. Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler, Galileo (convicted of heresy by the
Church)
b. Sir Issac Newton used what was discovered before him to find laws of
motion
V. Results
a. Promoted scientific method
b. International scientific community grew
PHILOSOPHES OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT (Philosophe: Intellectuals of the
Enlightenment, a philosophical movement promoting liberty, progress, reason, and
tolerance.)
I. John Locke
a. Rejected idea of divine right, believed in natural rights and that only rulers
who respected the rights of the people deserved power
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Description
The SCIENTIFC REVOLUTION I. Science in 1500 a. Based on Aristotle, outdated, Geocentric Model II. Reasons for Scientific Revolution a. Renaissance spurred scientific exploration b. Universities were giving people educations c. Better tools built (telescope) III. Copernican Hypothesis a. Heliocentric Model (against Catholic and Protestant views) IV. Post-Copernicus a. Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler, Galileo (convicted of heresy by the Church) b. Sir Issac Newton used what was discovered before him to find laws of motion V. Results a. Promoted scientific method b. International scientific community grew PHILOSOPHES OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT (Philosophe: Intellectuals of the Enlightenment, a philosophical movement promoting liberty, progress, reason, and tolerance.) I. John Locke a. Rejected idea of divine right, believed in natural rights and that only rulers who respected the rights of the people deserved power II. Voltaire a. Did not believe in democracy or equality, preferred an enlightened despot b. Thought Africans were inferior III. Rousseau a. People were born free and inherently good b. Version of social contract: Government by general will IV. Montesquieu a. Used scientific method to study the government i. Believed in separation of powers b. Thought slavery corrupted both master + slave, however supported property rights for slave-owners ENLIGHTENED DESPOTS: A monarch who would promote Enlightened ideals I. Frederick the Great (Prussia) a. Abolished torture, gave freedom of speech + press + religious tolerance to Jews b. But kept social stratification/serfdom II. Joseph II (Austria) a. Reformers – abolished serfdom + death penalty, gave religious tolerance b. Too many reforms – was hated, many were undone after his death III. Catherine the Great (Russia) a. Made Russia a great power, the Golden Age b. Supported Enlightened ideals, patron of education c. Kept serfdom in place + serfs oppressed REVOLUTION IN ENGLAND I. Magna Carta (1215) a. Rights of Englishmen – speedy trial, trial by jury, face accuser
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