MCC-UE 5 Lecture Notes

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Media, Culture & Communication
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lecture 10/25 10/2/2012 12:11:00 PM Nanosecond - the argument relies on us having an idea that we believe in a current time period and a previous time period - we cannot say we do something “more” or “less” now unless we can solidly compare it to the piece - the value of the nanosecond article is difficult to get to because of the difference in time Theorize output by storytelling Story is an organized sequence  Beginning  Middle  End - NOT anecdotes [email protected] 646 431 3123 polaroid camera - developmental Community and Knowledge 10/2/2012 12:11:00 PM Specific vs. General Weak vs. Strong ex. Communication was created by religion ex. For early Christians, the first moments of communication was tied up in religious morality Specific is general good Weak vs. Strong has to do with verb choice  try to use strong verbs (was created by..) What is your definition of common sense? A socially constructed and widely accepted body of thought that is subject to evolution and difference via cultural and generational frameworks. What is the definition of sense?  Things that we are born with “common sense relative to a particular culture” Common Sense as a Cultural System  Cultural in this context means “way of life” “it is an inherent characteristic of common sense thought precisely to deny this and to affirm that its tenets are immediate deliverances of experience, not deliberated reflections upon it.” (75) o 1. Common sense is no more than our biological processes of thought o 2. It’s something that is a social construct “Both our common sense and scientific realism attest to the fact that there is, first, a real world of objects, events, and processes that we observe. Second, there is a language or symbols that name these events in the real world and create more or less adequate descriptions of them. There is reality, and then, after the fact, our accounts of it.” “Intersexuality is more than an empirical surprise; it is a cultural challenge.” empirical- any knowledge derived from direct observation of the world “Common sense is not what the mind cleared of cant spontaneously apprehends; it is what the mind filled with presuppositions.. concludes.”  cant- the jargon or argot of a group, often implying its use to exclude or mislead people outside the group. Characteristics of common sense: Must have-  Natural-ness  Practical-ness  Thin-ness  Immethodical-ness  Accessible-ness Lecture 9/13/2012 Google Ngram shows you the relative frequency of words as they appear in English over the past 100 years 1850- birth of Modernism  Modernism is a system of thought, or an underlying logic o Process is good o Technoscience is a means of progress o Teleological In the past, science was exploration. The activity of science was discovery. Science has changed to technoscience, where we instead make and develop things. World War II:  The atom bomb  The holocaust  The invention of the computer Communication was a static until 1950s when it gets redefined and becomes a topic of study Writing  Choice of topic/reading  Writing/structuring of ideas  Chops  Try not to use the word “that”  Try not to use the word “thus”  Try not to use the word “such as”. Just make the sentence more specifc.  Be specific  Parallel structure  Verb choice  Tense  Simplicity  Close reading Things to write about - imperfect modernism - evolution of communication - subcultures relative to gertzs theories ex. Furries Lecture 9/18 10/2/2012 12:11:00 PM - Pinker vs. Colapinto Colapinto-  Pg 125, when he explains his conversation with Everett about the bugs, “how you were trying to tell him something about your general state..”  Above passage is reminiscent of common sense  Pg 130- the image of empirical reality “the immediacy of experience principle” o Empirical- is information that we get through our senses  Pg 125- the idea of nature vs. nurture o Whats inside you vs. whats around you o Biology and genetics vs. sociologists, anthropologists, psychologists o Everett believes that nurture (culture) plays a much larger role o We end up with a situation where almost everytime we have a binary, we realize that the binary has a spectrum; everything is hopelessly entangled  believes that there is a universal grammar that connects us all and that if scientists explore enough, they can find the perfect expression of how humans communicate  pg 134 “glitch in the software..” “just because we’re sitting in the same room doesn’t mean we’re sitting in the same century..” o hes indicating that theyre the same people, just less developed Pinker-  Many prefer language instinct because its more specific, you can get a general understanding of his own theory  The main idea is that thought is not dependent on language, disagrees with the belief that language makes thought popular  The most important passage comes “no question comes more central to the language instinct.” Pg 56, middle paragraph  Methodology- what can you physically go out and do to make your own knowledge  Pg 57, last paragraph “but it is wrong..”  Pinker is teaching us something about the culture in which we are all embedded and circulating in Lecture 9/20 10/2/2012 12:11:00 PM Racist Stereotyping in the English Language Main idea: the context of language and words depends on the culture of the particular society in which the words are being spoken. It is, in essence, a social construct based on the beliefs and ideas of the native people. Politics and Terminology- argues against the term “culturally deprived.”  The whole article is normative  What particular action should we take, not should we take  “naturalization”, a cultural process by which a phenomena becomes framed or discussed in a way to make it more natural o things that are naturalized are things that we have difficulty understanding because they have been so changed  attempts to denaturalize the language that we use  “Alientation” – the reality between the experienced physical world and our mental and linguistic perceptions of it On Truth Lies in a Nonmoral Sense Main Idea: its paradoxical how our human intellect has allowed us to come to the conclusion that human intellect is insignificant and a waste of time Men are led by selfish and gross desires. How could a need for truth come from such a nature? The only words we have to describe things are metaphors. Once again, everything is opinionated and a part of a larger social construct. Truth is a set of human relations which have been poetically and rhetorically amplified, intensified, transferred and embellished, and which, after a long usage, seemed to a people to be fixed, canonical, and binding. All of the readings have to do with some form of cultural common sense and how people perceive it in contrast to reality. What to write about..  Other examples of things that have to do with other racial words  Doing some experiments in terms of words homework help 10/2/2012 12:11:00 PM 1.try not to use the word “that” 2.colons [:] can be used instead of “such as” 3.“thus” implies a particular causality. Try “also” or “therefore” 4.“we” / “our” – pronouns. They stand for nouns that have already appeared in writing (ex. Bobby/he). Make sure the identifying noun has already appeared in the text. 5.“very” is very vague 6.“I agree/I don’t agree” 7. your name is on the file name 8. put your name on your works 9. pdf 10. double space 11. five hundred to a thousand words  makes someone else read it  have a conversation with them about what you wrote  change what you wrote in some way  put both pieces in a single file 12. “occurences”, uses “events” or “phenomena” instead 13. “connotation” 14. the work/the ideas (what is the actual object you are writing about? We’re writing about the article, not the concept) 15. how do you know? 16. opinion comes last 10/02/12 12:11:00 PM The American People 10/2/2012 12:11:00 PM Fresh Air from WHYY - Advises politicians on issues of language (Republicans) - Author of “Words that Work”  Figure out what Americans relate to, understand o Learn the words that work and incorporate them into various fields  Clarity, misrepresents  Accuracy  Read George Orwell’s essay on language  7:40- peoples opinions vs the public’s opinions  88% of americans..  frank luntz is a sophist- disingenuiness common sense is just what is agreed on by most people  1. Decision/action  2. Distrobited/public  3. Luntz assumes that the public is going to make the decision based on a name’s connotation procedural rhetoric- processes that convince or motivate  its important because it shows the newest, youngest, form of rhetoric cultural systems midterm - notes on “metaphors we live by” 10/2/2012 12:11:00 PM metaphors are a matter of “extraordinary” rather than “ordinary” language  metaphors are pervasive in our everyday life, including thought and action  if we agree that a large part of our conceptual systems involve metaphors, then it indicates that our everyday lives are essentially comprised of metaphors arguments as wars vs dances “win, lose” vs. “performance”  we view arguments as we do because we conceive it as a literal thing (war), and we act based upon our conceptions  metaphor is not purely linguistic, it is also CONCEPTUAL (human thought processes) o the essence of metaphor is understanding and experiencing one thing in terms of another we can use metaphorical linguistic expressions to study the nature of metaphorical concepts ex time is money  because we act as if time is a valuable commodity, we conceive of time that way  time is money, time is a limited resource, time is a valuable commodity- we view it as so because in our society, money is a valuable commodity, and it is a limited resource Randy Michael Reddy- conduit metaphors  Ideas (or meanings) are objects  Linguistic expressions are containers  Communication is sending o Entails that individual words have distinct meanings aside from their use in specific phrases/sentences o ASK TO GO OVER CONDUIT METAPHORS Regular metaphors are structural metaphors Orientational metaphors: give a metaphor a spatial concept  Ex. Happy is UP Has to do with physical means (ex. Human beings are down when they sleep/die, are up when they awaken) they are rooted in physical and cultural experiences Ontological metaphors: a metaphor in which an abstraction, such as an activity, emotion, or idea, is represented as something concrete, such as an object, substance, container, or person.  ex. How did Jerry get out of washing the windows?  Outside of washing the windows, what else did you do?  How did you get into window-washing as a profession?  I put a lot of energy into washing the windows. Container metaphors:  lecture 10/2/12 pg 5- “moreover, this is the ordinary way of having an argument and talking about one”  - Geertz common sense, arguments as war is common sense o someone has to win an argument o but that might only be true for some americans o cultural differences is not the main topic but it is a little bit of a hole relative to what else we read pg. 14- orientational metaphors  does this support or contradict moores ideas about color words?  What is the physical basis of color words? o Cultural inertia argument  Black/white has been used s
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