Usa has gotten less tolerant, according to the world values report. Two major obstacles african americans had to secure rights. Factions can compete against each other, but what if a faction cannot compete. California (free) joins despite no slave counter, compromise to fugitive slave law. Southern states move to leave, starts civil war, 1861. Confederate states go back to white democratic control by 1877. 1876 election of hayes ends reconstruction, troops pull out of south in 1877. Jim crow laws: tried to disenfranchise african americans. Poll tax, literacy test: tried to prevent voting by african americans. Democrats try to appeal to african americans and try to get them to vote dem and they fight for civil rights. Brown v boe: separate but equal not okay. Civil rights of 1964, johnson wins in landslide, dems want civil rights-massive flip since election. Shelby county v hunter (2013) allowed some states to not clear changes in voting laws with.