COM 201 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Connotation, Denotation, Diaphragmatic Breathing

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What happens when you breathe?
Diaphragm contracts when inhale, ribs move upward and out increasing the size of the
chest cavity
Air flows into the lungs and fills the vacuum
When you exhale the diaphragm slowly begins to relax, and abdominal muscles exert
pressure upward to force air out of the lungs
Types of Breathing
If you gasp for air/ raise shoulders = clavicular breathing (happens from the top of
lungs)
Causes tension in neck and throat (avoid this type of breathing)
Diaphragmatic breathing = produces steady breath from the diaphragm and also
provides the constant supply of air need to produce sound
Volume
Intensity, loudness, and softness of your voice
Voice projection - requires strength and volume (diaphragmatic breathing)
Don’t strain your voice
Articulation
Clarity and enunciation of words, phrase, and sentences in speech
Casual conversation= sloppy articulators
We eliminate vowels and even run words together
To communicate effectively, a speaker must enunciate clearly
The audience must be able to understand words/phrases without having to guess the
meaning
If you lessen the volume at the end of the sentence, audience can not understand you
When speaking, open your mouth and articulate clearly. Remember that people must
understand you
Pitch
Highness or lowness of sound
If you spoke in your normal voice and struck a note on a piano corresponding to your
vocal note, you would find your approximate pitch
Inflection= changes in pitch (important in effective vocal delivery) (monotone and
emotion in voice)
Do not use a speech pattern or same cycle of inflection
Rate
Number of words an individual speaks every minute
Don't rush/ go to slow
Most desirable rate is 125-150 words per minute
Pause
Breaks/interruptions in a speech that separate thoughts/ideas
Dramatic pauses: intentional breaks/silences between ideas that can bring out the
meaning of a specific passage
Vocalized pauses are fillers- verbalizations like “uh’ ‘um’ ‘like’ ‘so’ etc
Emphasis/Phrasing
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