ANTHROP 2200 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Francis Bacon, Vertebrate Paleontology

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Evolution - a sequence of change over timea.
Fact: we have fossil evidence showing it happenedi.
Theory: uncertainty about speed at which change occursii.
Evolution is both fact & theoryb.
For a trait to be evolutionary, it must be INHERITABLEc.
EvolutionI.
Most believe in Special Creationa.
Biology teach creationismb.
God made the Earthi.
God made man in his imageii.
Literal interpretations of the biblec.
Man has dominion over all the plants and animalsi.
Great Chain of Beingd.
John begat Paula.
Begat Georgeb.
Begat Ringoc.
Counts all the begats1.
Very literal interpretationa.
Determines the Earth was made 4004 BC Thursday Oct 232.
References Biblei.
Bishop James Usshere.
Basis for all science1.
Developed the scientific methodi.
Sir Francis Baconf.
Pre-17th Century/Pre-evolutionary TheoryII.
The Earth is Ancienti.
Earth's surface has and continues to changeii.
Plants and animals have and continue to changeiii.
3 key concepts BEFORE evolutionary theory is accepteda.
If discussed it is highly contentiousi.
Often secretive and obscureii.
Early Evolutionary Theoryb.
Fossils are found and can't be explainedi.
God made everything but fossils don't look like anything livingii.
Paleontology studies fossils1.
What are they?iii.
Studies tissue structure of fossilized wood1.
Fossil wood had same tissue as living trees2.
Determines fossils were once living3.
Fossils are the remains of organisms4.
Robert Hookeiv.
Studied fossil animals in France
1.
Baron George Cuvierv.
Paleontologyc.
Evolutionary Theory FoundationIII.
Lecture 2
-
History of Evolutionary Theory
Monday, January 16, 2017 10:50 AM
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Studied fossil animals in France
1.
Father of comparative anatomy2.
After catastrophic events (earthquakes, floods, etc.) all life in
the region was wiped out: eventually it is repopulated by
animals from other locations
i.
Catastrophism fits with bible (floods like Noah's Arc) and
therefore accepted. We now know it was wrong
ii.
Explains existence of fossils through catastrophism:a.
Father of vertebrate paleontology3.
Fossils are worldwide1.
Insatiable human need to classify2.
Paleontology allows us to determine biological relationships3.
Studied animalsi.
Looked at complete morphologyii.
Similar features means similar classificationiii.
John Raya.
Studied plant sex organsi.
Developed a hierarchyii.
Two Latin Names that describe the organism1.
Genus: Group of species with similar adaptations2.
Liger is infertile offspring of lion and tiger; another
example is a Mule
-
Species: populations whose members can naturally
interbreed and produce fertile offspring
3.
Genus species is always written in italics or underlined
and the first letter of the Genus is the only one
capitalized
4.
Naming system called Binomial Nomenclature (still used
today!)
iii.
Published in Systemae Naturae 1735iv.
Carl Linneausb.
Fathers of Taxonomy4.
Taxonomy and Systematicsvi.
There is proof of animals changing1.
Incomplete puzzle, still missing Earth is old and Earth surface has changed2.
Belief is that fossils are dead animals & all animals were created and
existed at the same time
3.
Jumping to Conclusionsvii.
Published Philosopha Zoologique1.
Life-forms reproduce and pass on modifications/changes to
offspring
a.
Good ideas about evolution2.
Changes occur because organism want ita.
Any change is passed on to offspringb.
Wrong mechanism3.
Living organisms arose from precursor speciesi.
The change is related to the environment of the organism
ii.
Correct observations:a.
Giraffe Example4.
Jean Baptiste Lamarckviii.
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