EARTHSC 1121 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Earth Radius, Seismic Wave, Peridotite

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Chapter 2 Structure of the Earth
Earth’s “urfae
- Our eperiee ith Earth is liited to its’ surfae
- Earth has a complicated interior
- Earth is haraterized …
o Internally generated magnetic field
o Solid and liquid surfaces
o Gaseous envelope
o Layered interior
- **mantle is solid**
Earth and the Solar System
- What would solar system visitors notice?
o Magnetic field (molten in the center of the planet made of moving iron and
nickel)
o Atmosphere
o Surface Features
Continents
Oceans
Polar ice caps
Evidence of humanity?
Structures
o Dams
o Cities
o Roads/canals
o Nightlife
Electric lights
Magnetic Field
- The Earth has a prominent dipolar magnetic field
- Like a bar magnet, the field has north and south ends
- Note: The Earth’s ageti field does ot oe fro a ar aget
- Magnetic flux has direction that flows N to S
- Mageti field lies…
o Extend into space
o Weaken with distance
o Create a shield around Earth (the magnetosphere)
o The shield deflects the charged particles from solar wind
The Atmosphere
- Earth has a thermally and chemically stable atmosphere
- Thus, Earth is unique among the terrestrial planets
o Venus has a thick atmosphere and has the same temperature everywhere (hot)
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Document Summary

Our e(cid:454)perie(cid:374)(cid:272)e (cid:449)ith earth is li(cid:373)ited to its" surfa(cid:272)e. Internally generated magnetic field: solid and liquid surfaces, gaseous envelope, layered interior. What would solar system visitors notice: magnetic field (molten in the center of the planet made of moving iron and nickel, atmosphere, surface features. Like a bar magnet, the field has north and south ends. The earth has a prominent dipolar magnetic field. Note: the earth"s (cid:373)ag(cid:374)eti(cid:272) field does (cid:374)ot (cid:272)o(cid:373)e fro(cid:373) a (cid:271)ar (cid:373)ag(cid:374)et. Magnetic flux has direction that flows n to s. Mag(cid:374)eti(cid:272) field li(cid:374)es : extend into space, weaken with distance, create a shield around earth (the magnetosphere, the shield deflects the charged particles from solar wind. Earth has a thermally and chemically stable atmosphere. Thus, earth is unique among the terrestrial planets: venus has a thick atmosphere and has the same temperature everywhere (hot) Densest at sea-level, the atmosphere thins upward. The atmosphere is mostly nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%)

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