EARTHSC 1121 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Mount Vesuvius, Subduction, Oceanic Crust

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Volcanic Eruptions & the Formation of Igneous Rocks
Volcanic Eruptions
What is a volcano?
An erupting vent through which molten rock surfaces.
A mountain built from magmatic eruptions.
Volcanoes are a clear result of tectonic activity.
Volcanoes pose a number of hazards to humans,
Mexico City.
Seattle, U.S.
Naples, Italy.
In 79 C.E. Mount Vesuvius erupted violently.
Pyroclastic flows destroyed Pompeii, killing 20,000.
A record of Roman life was preserved under ash.
Unpredictable, dangerous.
Build large mountains.
Blow mountains to bits.
Eruptions can…
Provide highly productive soils to feed a civilization.
Can extinguish a civilization in a matter of minutes.
Eruptions affect climate.
Our atmosphere today is mostly Nitrogen and Oxygen. Because eruptions spew Carbon into the air, we know
that there must be a means to draw down the Carbon from the atmosphere.
Tectonic Settings
Plate motion is a dominant control on volcanism.
Volcanic types are linked to tectonic settings.
Hot spots--where mantle plumes cut the lithosphere.
Oceanic hotspots.
E.g. Hawaii
Continental hotspots and flood basalts.
E.g. (of Continental) Yellowstone
Old Faithful.
Mid-ocean ridges--spreading axes.
Convergent boundaries--subduction zones.
Continental rifts--incipient ocean basins.
Setting is a dominant control of…
Magma source
Volcanic type
Volcanic shape
Rock composition
Volcanic hazard
Composition
Eruptive style
Hot spot and mid-ocean ridge volcanoes ooze their lava.
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Document Summary

Volcanic eruptions & the formation of igneous rocks. An erupting vent through which molten rock surfaces. Volcanoes are a clear result of tectonic activity. Volcanoes pose a number of hazards to humans, A record of roman life was preserved under ash. Provide highly productive soils to feed a civilization. Can extinguish a civilization in a matter of minutes. Our atmosphere today is mostly nitrogen and oxygen. Because eruptions spew carbon into the air, we know that there must be a means to draw down the carbon from the atmosphere. Plate motion is a dominant control on volcanism. Volcanic types are linked to tectonic settings. Hot spots--where mantle plumes cut the lithosphere. Hot spot and mid-ocean ridge volcanoes ooze their lava. Seems like the most obvious way, but actually the least common source. Bringing hot rock that is hot but under a lot of pressure and bringing it to a land.

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