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Lecture 6

PHILOS 1100H Lecture 6: Fine - Essence and Modality (02.23)

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Caplan Ben

Philos 1100H Fine – “Essence and Modality” February 23 I. Properties A. Essential 1. Examples: being human, being alive, being a woman, having had certain parents, being a moral agent B. Accidental 1. Examples: being seated, having a certain hair color, wearing certain clothes, being in philosophy class 2. Being a member of {you} a. Not part of the nature/essence of you to be in a set II. Properties A. Proposal 1. For any object x and any property F, x essentially has F if and only if it’s necessary that x has F. a. Not Fine’s view b. Essence is primitive and we need it, but cannot define it in this way c. Everything that is essential is necessary, but not everything that is necessary is essential. B. Necessary 1. Being a member of {you} a. Set theory = different members; set whose sole member is you (singleton set) i. If some things exist, then there is a set of those things and they exist ii. If you exist, then your singleton exists b. Not part of your essence – nothing in the nature of the person suggests there must be sets 2. Being numerically distinct from the Eiffel Tower a. Not part of essence b/c not important piece of you to not be Eiffel Tower 3. Being such that there are numbers a. Necessary but says
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