PLNTPTH 2000 Lecture 12: 2/6--The Ascomycota

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The Ascomycota
Fungus -O- the Day
Milk Caps--Lactarius species
First named by Linnaeus as
Agaricus deliciosus
Great to eat!
All Lactarius species make latex!
Latex evolved more than once
Some had a distinct taste of maple
syrup or curry
Kingdom Fungi
Phyla:
Chytridiomycota (PROBABLY WON’T TALK ABOUT THESE ANY MORE,
EXCEPT ON THE EXAM)
Form motile spores called zoospores
Meiosis occurs in resting sporangium
Zygomycota (PROBABLY WON’T TALK ABOUT THESE ANY MORE, EXCEPT
ON THE EXAM)
Form asexual spores called sporangiospores
Meiosis occurs in zygospore
Zygospores are therefore the result of sexual
reproduction
Ascomycota (TALKING ABOUT TODAY; THESE & BASIDIOMYCOTA WILL
BE THE BULK OF THE EXAM.)
Form asexual spores called conidia
Meiosis occurs in ascus
They make ascospores here.
This, by far, has the most fungi in it. We will get very
familiar with this throughout the semester.
Mutualists, endomycetales, industrial purposes,
etc.
Characteristics:
Ascus = Sac fungi
3,400 genera, >32,000 species (with >40% being lichenized fungi)
Hyphae have simple septa and may undergo anastomosis
Asexual reproduction by conidiation, hyphal fragmentation (just
the hyphae break, and that’s its reproduction), yeast budding or
fission
Most energy is spent through asexual reproduction
(opposite of the basidium).
Sexual reproduction produces ascospores that are released from
an ascus
Many are able to exploit complex and exotic carbon source (e.g.
Alternaria can live on leathers, jet fuel, numerous hydrocarbons,
etc.)
Paul Stamets’s video, where fungi ate the various forms of
“garbage.”
In steel mills, where they need to cool their equipment,
they spray them with heavy oils and lipids. A bunch of
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these things were living in there and actually caused the
plants to shut down for a while.
Asexual Cycle
pictured left.
Some are
red, some are blue: mating type A vs. mating type
a/B.
These
spores are haploid, one-end, like sperm.
These have
septa, different from a zygomycete.
These
sexual spores can germinate, but they don’t tend to
like to live a lot of time as an ascospore (hate the
Dikaryotic state). So, they need to find mates
relatively quickly and form the Ascocarp.
Even
tually they’ll create a mating structure, often
in result of sensing a pheromone.
Matin
g structures meet with each other thanks to
pheromones. Then they fuse (cell wall
dissolves--plasmogamy, n+n mycelia).
Ascocarp: just the house. Inside are asci
(ass-sigh).
Tetrad analysis: you can pick apart the
Ascus and see where genes line up, etc.
Not really necessary to know, just
interesting.
Basidiomycota
Meiosis occurs in basidium
Classes of Ascomycota separated by Ascocarp
1. Hemiascomycetes--naked asci
2. Plectomycetes--Cleistothecium--closed structure
3. Pyrenomycetes--Perithecium--flask shaped
4. Discomycetes--Apothecium--disk or cup shaped
1. 2. 3. 4.
Naked Asci
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