Estrogenic hormones *women tend to have higher amounts of leptin b/c of their higher levels of estrogen hormones. Low energy availability (net difference b/w dietary intake and exercise expenditure) Androgenic hormones *reason why men have lower levels intake. Leptin is one of the many hormones regulating back to the cns to control food intake and. Ghrelin and cck come from the gi tract *secreted in the absence or presence of food, or fatty food presence. Satiety signals are from hormones from the gi tract that signal info. about meal intake. Adiposity signals are from hormones that monitor the mass of adipose tissue. Npy and agouti-related protein (agrp) are coexpressed in arcuate neurons and their combined actions provide a strong drive for food intake. -msh, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcription (cart) surpress food intake. Mcr4 shows the highest rate of leptin association w/ human morbid obesity. Suppresses npy (neuropeptide y) and agrp in the arcuate n.