BIOS 4630 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Citrate Synthase, Carbonic Anhydrase, Cytochrome C

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Biochem Notes 1/31/16
I. Enzymes
a. Biological catalysts
i. Increase reaction rate (to 10^17 fold)
ii. Catalase (very abundant crystalline) works on hydrogen peroxide reaction
whey hydrogen peroxide is poured on wound it foams up due to the O2
released
1. 2H2O2 <-> 2H2O + O2
iii. Proteins (and some catalytically active RNA)
iv. Ase-enzyme
v. Enzyme name indicates rxn
1. Cytochrome C oxidase -> oxidation of cytochrome c is the final
step of the ETC
2. Citrate synthase -> 1st step of citric acid cycle, synthesizes citric
acid
II. Terminology Examples
a. Substrate (reactant or ligand) and product
b. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes product of carbonic acid
i. CO2 + H2O <-> H2CO3
ii. Activity =rate of catalysis (umols/min)
iii. Brings CO2 and H2O in close proximity (active site contains Zn bound to 3
Histidine)
iv. Orients substrates
v. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (for treatment of glaucoma)
III. Thermodynamics
a. G=H-T∆S
b. G = Gproducts-Greactants
c. G indicates whether or not a reaction is spontaneous (spontaneous does not
equal speedy)
d. ∆G<0 eergoi; ∆G>0 edergoi
e. G=0 rxn at equilibrium
f. G is independent of pathway
g. Ezes aot effet ∆G
IV. Transition States
a. Graph is exergonic
b. Gdoubledagger= Gsdoubledagger-Gs
i. Gdoubledagger>0
c. ∆Gprodut<∆Gsustrate
i. she just limboed lol
V. Enzyme substrate complex and the active site
a. First step in catlysis is formation of ES complex
b. Active sites are
i. Small
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