BIOL 1604 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Blood Vessel, Blastocoel, Simple Squamous Epithelium

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26 Feb 2017
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Chapter 3: Animal Architecture
hierarchical organixation of animal classification
Protoplasmic
Cellular
Cell-tissue
Tissue-organ
Organ system
Grades of organization
Unicellular protozoans
o Simplest eukaryotic organisms
o Protoplasmic level of organization
o Perform all basic functions within confines of single cell
Metazoa
o Multicellular animals
o Cells are specialized parts of whole organism
o Cellular level of organization
Simplest metazoans
Cells demonstrate division of labor
o Tissue level of organization
Cells grouped together
Perform common function as a unit (tissue(
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o Organ level of organization
Tissues assembled into larger functional units (organ)
o Organ system level of organization
Organs work together to perform a common function. Highest level of
organization
Animal body plans: symmetry
Symmetry: balanced proportions, or correspondence in size and shape of parts on opposite sides
of a median plane
Asymmetrical
o No half no symmetry
Spherical
o Axis passing through the middle of the animal could be anywhere, it could be
anywhere and the two halves would be completely symmetrical
Symmetrical
o
Radial symmetry
o Any plane passing through the oral-aboral axis divides the animal into mirror
images
o Oral: mouth end // aboral: the end opposite the mouth
o No left/right sides
o Phyla Cnidaria, Ctenophora, some
Implications of radial symmetry
Low mobility
Confront the environment equally from a variety of directions
Less complex systems
Bilateral symmetry
o One plane of symmetry (sagittal) divides the body into two mirrored portions,
right and left halves
o Cephalization
o Most animals
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o Regions of bilaterally symmetrical animals
Anterior
Head end
Posterior
Tail end
Dorsal
Back or upper side
Ventral
Front or belly side
Medial
Midline of body
Lateral
sides
Cleavage: orderly sequence of cell division where the zygote divides into more cells. Mitotic
process
Early Cells become committed to particular developmental fates
Cytoplasmic specification
o Determinative molecules (mRNA and proteins) are partitioned among cleaving
cells (blastomeres)
Conditional specification
o The fate of a particular cell is not fixed until the cell receives positional
information from neighboring cells (induction)
Syncytial specification
o the molecules that influence cell fate diffuse within the cytoplasm of single large
cell and not among cells
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