BIOL 1604 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Apicomplexa, Ciliate, Malaria

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26 Feb 2017
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Unicellular Eukaryotes
“Protista” or “Protozoa”
Evolutionary perspectives (prokaryote vs Eukaryote)
Polyphyletc
o Analyses of sequences of ribosomal RNA have lead to recgnixe more groups and
even kingdoms. Some names and categories have been newly created
Current classification is based on
o Characteristic cellular structures
o Genomic sequences
Plant-like (autotrophic) forms
Animal-like (heterotrophic) forms
General characteristics
Group Proto + zoa (meaning animal)
Kingdom Protista
o Eukaryotic
o Unicellular, some colonial
o Mostly microscopic
o Asexual and sexual reproduction
o No tissues or organs, but different specialized organelles
Endosymbiont hypothesis
Mitochondria/chloroplast used to be bacteria and were
phagoctosed and then were incorporated into the cell
o No nervous system but receptive to certain stimuli
Photoreception
Temperature changes
Ecology
In general, require moisture
Free living (marine, freshwater, terrestrial), mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, and
decomposers represented in the gtoups
Impact on humans
Health (diseases)
Medicine
Food industry
Locomotion
Cilia
o Typically present in large numbers and are relatively short
Flagella
o Longer than cilia and less numberous
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Cilia and flagella have a similar internal structure. Their movement is
powered by the release of chemical bond energy in ATP
Pseudopodia
o Temporary protrusions of cytoplasm used for locomotion and ingestion
Taxa with cilia
Euplotes
Stentor
Vorticella
Zoothamnium
Dieptus
Tetrahymena
Taxa with flagella
Chlamydomonas
Ceratium
Trypanosoma
Trichonympha
Gonium
Peranema
Ptchodiscus
Trichomonas
Giardia
Noctiluca
Types of pseudopodia
Lobopodia
o Rather large blunt extensions of the cell containing endoplasm (fluid state) and
ectoplasm (gel state)
Filopodia
o Thin extensions containing ectoplasm
Reticulopodia
o Repeatedly rejoin to form a netlike mesh
Axopodia
o Long, thin. Supported by axial rods of microtubules
Amoeba (active locomotion)
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