BIOL 1604 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Sensillum, Pollination, Ecdysis

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26 Feb 2017
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Phylum Arthropoda
Characteristics:
Triploblastic bilateral coelomates
Complete digestive tract
More than 1 million species described
Marine, freshwater, terrestrial, some parasitic
Nervous system similar to that of annelids with dorsal brain and double nerve chain of
ventral ganglia
Respiration by body surface, gills, trachea, or book lungs.
Open circulatory system
Sexes usually separated
Oviparous, viviparous, ovoviviparous
A successful phylum
Metamerism
o Segmented bodies/jointed appendages
Tagmatization: tagmata (singular tagma): functional body regions
Jointed paired appendages
Versatile mouthparts
Versatile exoskeleton
o Secreted by epidermis
Epicuticle
Procuticle
Sclerotization
o Proteins, lipids, chitin, and often
calcium carbonate
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Complex muscular system
o Striated and smooth muscles, exoskeleton for attachment
Respiratory systems
o Air piped directly to cells
Highly developed sensory organs
Complex behavior patterns
o Social organization
Metamorphosis
o Tropic breadth through developmental stages
Subphylum Trilobitomorpha
Subphylum Chelicerata
Characteristics
o Prosoma (cephalothorax) and opithosoma (abdomen)
o No antennae
o First pair of appendages: chelicerae
o Second pair of appendages: pedipalps
o 4 pairs of walking legs, most with hair-like sensorial setae
Class Merostomata (horseshoe crabs and giant water scorpion)
Unsegmented shaped carapace (hard dorsal shield)
Broad abdomen with telson
Scavengers or carnivorous
Book gills
Class Pycnogonida (sea spiders)
Class Arachnida (scorpions, mites, spiders, ticks)
Order Araneae (true spiders)
o Chelicerae function as fangs with venom glands
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o Pedicel
o Silk producing glands and spinnerets
o Terrestrial, freshwater, and intertidal habitats
Spider systems
Book lungs (tracheae)
Malphigian tubules
Simply eyes (8)
Sensory setae
Open circulatory system
Feeding
Sedentary
Active hunters
Trap in web
Silk and predation
Spinnerets in the opisthosoma: silk glands
Different functions
Reproduction
Complex behaviors
Male uses special cavities of his pedipalps
Pheromones
Oviparous
Silken cocoon
Examples
Black widow
o 5 species in the US
o Hourglass on ventral surface of
abdomen
o Webs in dark, sheltered sites
o Neurotoxic venom
o Males harmless
Brown recluse
o Nocturnal
o Only small retreat webs
o Necrotic venom
Bites result in necrotic
wounds
Order Scorpionida (scorpions)
o Short prosoma (cephalothorax) with appendages and eyes.
Segmented abdomen
o Stinging apparatus: end of tail-telson (neurotoxic venom)
o Large pedipalps-pincers
o Tropical to temperate climate
o Nocturnal predators
o Oviparous/viviparous/ovoviviparous
Order Solpudida (sun or camel spiders)
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