GEOL 4023 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Source Rock, Geochemistry, Pyrolysis

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13 Mar 2017
The Petroleum System
A. Assessment of oil generated in sedimentary basin
1. Calculated using a geochemical mass balance method
2. Equation:
Volume of oil generated= basin area X average total thickness of source rock X
transformation ratio.
a. volume of source rock is calculated from thickness maps
b. average amount of organic matter est from geochemical analyses
of cores and cuttings
c. transformation ratio achieved by pyrolysis (Rock Eval)
1. transformation ratio > .1
2. commonly .3 to .7
B. Petroleum system facilitates modeling sedimentary basins
1. Tells how much oil and gas are generated and where it is accumulated
2. Integrates sedimentary, structural and thermal history
3. Describes richness, volume and maturity of source rocks
C. Defined: “a dynamic petroleum generating and concentrating physico-chemical system
functioning in a geologic space and time:
“a pod of active source rock and the resulting oil and gas accumulation:
1. Style of migration: lateral or vertical, which varies with time and basin history
2. Style of entrapment: depends on length and continuity of carrier beds,
distribution of seals and tectonic style
3. One-dimensional modeling: construction of a burial history curve at a point
such as one well in a basin
4. Two-dimensional modeling involves constructing cross sections through a
5. 3-d models involve a volume of rock
D. Summary: Page 229 in Selley
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