HDFS 2113 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Advanced Maternal Age, Miscarriage, Syphilis

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Prenatal Development
Chapter 3
The course of prenatal development
Divided into three periods: Germinal, embryonic, and fetal (not equal in length)
o Germinal period (zygote period) takes place in the first two weeks after
conception. The one cell zygote multiplies and forms a blastocyst. The
blastocyst burrows into the uterine lining, then structures that feed and
protect the developing organism begin to form (i.e., umbilical cord, placenta,
etc.)
Blastocyst inner layer of cells
Trophoblast outer layer of cells
o Embryonic period occurs two to eight weeks after conception
Embro mass of cells
Three layers of cells endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm
Organogenesis organ formation that takes place during the firs two
months of prenatal development
It is during these six weeks of the embryonic period that the most
rapid prenatal changes take place since the groundwork is laid for all
body structures and internal organs. However, the mother probably
has not yet confirmed the pregnancy.
o Fetal period two months after conception and birth in typical pregnancies.
This is the longest prenatal period. The developing organism increases
rapidly in size, especially from the ninth to the twentieth week.
The course of prenatal development
Brain
o Neurons nerve cells, which handle information processing at the cellular
level in the brain
Birth defects related to a failure of the neural tube
Anecephaly
Spina bifida
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