HDFS 2113 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Vasopressin, Prefrontal Cortex, Hypothalamus

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Attachment and its Development
Chapter 6 cont.
Attachment and its development
Attachment close emotional bond between two people
o Freud infants become attached to the person that provides oral satisfaction
o Harlow contact comfort preferred over food
o Erikson trust arises from physical comfort and sensitive care
o Bowlby four phases of attachment
Attachment to human figures
Focus on one figure
Specific attachments develop
Become aware of others’ feelings
Individual Differences in Attachment
Strange situation observational measure of infant attachment
o Requires the infant to move through a series of introductions, separations,
and reunions with the caregiver and an adult stranger in a prescribed order.
o Ainsworth developed this measure. This assessment is relatively brief, about
20 minutes, yet provides a good, not perfect, snapshot of attachment
development.
Securely attached babies use the caregiver as a secure base from which to
explore the environment
Insecure avoidant babies avoiding the caregiver
Insecure resistant babies cling to the caregiver, then resist the caregiver by
fighting against the closeness
Insecure disorganized babies being disorganized and disoriented
Interpreting differences in attachment
o Developmental cascade model involves connections across domains over
time that influence developmental pathways and outcomes
Caregiving styles and attachment
Maternal sensitivity linked to secure attachment
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