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Poultry Notebook week 1 part 2.pdf

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Oregon State University
Animal Sciences
ANS 217

1/8/13 1:36 PM Current News Event • Mexico bird disease trouble • Chickens are the most susceptible, not as hardy o High path influenza: kills overnight o Low path: makes them sick, but does not kill them. Egg production dips • Disease: asia, Africa, west Europe, not in America usually o Check the local flyways, waterfowl and parrots can be reservoirs for these diseases • Vet med: usually visit the pathologist and treat the healthy chickens to keep those from getting sick. Don’t treat the individuals Bird species • Wild birds o English sparrows and starlings invasive and taking over habitats o Some finches and etc. sold in pet stores • Commercial Birds o Charadriiformes> Snipe, woodcock o Neognathe> Ratites (keelless, flightless birds)  Keel: place for muscle to attach, birds that don’t fly don’t need it  Struthioniformes> Ostrich  Rheiformes> Rhea (smaller, similar to ostrich)  Casuariiformes> Cassowary, Emu • Emu is the most significant economically o Emu oil… o Meat too, but not very popular… o Columbiformes> Pigeons, doves, runt, squab  Supposedly squab is best “eating bird” o Anseriformes> Ducks, geese, waterfowl o Galliformes> Chicken, turkey, upland birds  Most significant poultry  200+ species  Phasianidae, numididae, melegrididae, tetraonidae What is poultry • Broad definition: commercial birds • Narrow: chickens and turkeys • USDA def: chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and guinea fowl, nothing else! Ancestry • Chicken and turkey ancestors o Chicken, pheasant, jungle fowl  Jungle fowl species  Red JF, gallus gallus  Ceylon JF    Ancestors came from SE asia but other areas as well  5000 BC  Multiple domestications in southern asia • Vietnam, Pakistan, other small areas  Evidence of domestication  5000 BC Vietnam  3200 BC India  Meat and eggs consumed • 2000-1500 BC china and Egypt  Many domestic chickens in western Europe • o Turkeys  Domestication  Southern north America Mexico  Earlier than 200 BC- Aztecs • ~ 300 AD Anasazi of SW US  Europe • Brought turkeys to Europe 1500 AD (Columbus) • Breeding developed varieties o White (Holland type), brown, black (Spain) • 1600 AD, Europeans back to New England (Pilgrims) o Narragansett developed in RI o Domestic turkeys crossed with wild turkeys History and Industry and Overview • Domestication o Chicken: a southeast Asian pheasant o Many would have gone extinct if not domesticated o Reasons for domestication  Eggs? Meat?  Fighting  Gamecocks • Game breeds o Old English game o Aseel (Indian Game) o Happens in Europe  Common by the middle ages • USA o Chickens came with early settlers  Jamestown, pilgrims, mayflower  Moved with westward expansion of NA  Eggs and meat  Fighting cocks
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