BIO 203 Lecture 3: ch 2 contiued

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Carbohydrates
Polymers made of monosaccharides (monomer)
Serve as fuel for the human body
Composed only of C, H, and O
Classified by size into monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides
Monosaccharides
Also called simple sugars
Glucose and fructose are examples
Oligosaccharides
Chains of a few monosaccharides
One type is a disaccharide, formed by joining two monosaccharides
Sucrose and maltose are examples
Polysaccharides
Chains of monosaccharides that store energy or provide structure
The storage polysaccharide in animals is glycogen, which humans store mainly in liver
and muscle cells
The storage polysaccharide in plants is starch
Cellulose
A structural polysaccharide made of repeating units of glucose found in cell walls of
plants
Humans lack the enzyme necessary to digest cellulose
An important form of fiber in the human diet
Lipids
Water-insoluble molecules made of C, H, and O
Store long-term energy protect vital organs
Form cell membranes
Subdivided into triglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids
Triglycerides
Polymers made of three fatty acids bonded to glycerol through dehydration synthesis
Examples are fats and oils
Classified as saturated or unsaturated
Phospholipid molecules have:
A glycerol head that is polar and hydrophilic (hydro: greek for water, philia: to love) and
mixes with watery environments inside and outside the cell
A fatty acid tail that is nonpolar and hydrophobic (hydro: water, Phobos: fear) that points
inward and helps hold the membrane together
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