BIO 203 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Central Nervous System, Peripheral Nervous System, Preterm Birth

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Department
Course
Stimulants
Drugs that excite the central nervous system (CNS)
Examples of stimulants:
Cocaine
Amphetamines
Nicotine
Cocaine
Extracted from leaves of the coca plant
Naturally occurring alkaloid
Methods of intake:
Inhalation into nasal cavity (powder)
Smoking (freebase and crack)
Amphetamines
Synthetically produced stimulants that closely resemble dopamine and
norepinephrine
example: methamphetamine (crystal meth)
Effects
Cause user to feel exhilarated and confident
Suppress appetite and need for sleep
Last longer than those produced by cocaine
Amphetamines cross the placenta and can affect the developing
fetus (premature birth, low-birth-weight)
Tolerance to amphetamines develops along with both physical and
psychological dependence
Nicotine
Naturally occurring alkaloid ingredient in tobacco products
Highly addictive
Activates acetylcholine receptors
In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), increases heart rate and
blood pressure
In the CNS, facilitates the release of dopamine and serotonin,
which creates pleasurable feelings of relaxation
Increases heart rate
Constricts blood vessels
Increases blood pressure
Increases stickiness of platelets
Increases the likelihood of abnormal clots forming
Can cause a heart attack or stroke
Hallucinogens
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