BIO 203 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Diabetes Mellitus Type 1, Gestational Diabetes, Kidney Failure

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Outline
General characterization and overall prevalence
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes
Gestational diabetes
General characterization and overall prevalence
Diabetes mellitus
Group of diseases characterized by problems in insulin production or
function, resulting in issues with glucose regulation
Two major types including type 1, type 2, account for 95% of cases
Glucose
Monosaccharide
Main source of fuel for cells
Obtained from the food we eat
Absorbed from the digestive tract into the bloodstream
Pancreas
Secretes insulin in response to high levels of glucose in the blood
Insulin promotes the movement of glucose into target cells by
increasing the number of glucose transport proteins in target cell
membranes
Unusually high levels of blood glucose occur when
There is not enough insulin
Target cells do not adequately respond to insulin
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes mellitus
An autoimmune disorder in which the immune system attacks the beta cells of
the pancreas, which produce insulin
Destruction of beta cells means that insulin must be delivered by injection or
pump
Represents 5% to 10% of all diagnosed cases
Former names:
Juvenile onset diabetes
Insulin-dependent diabetes
Type 2 diabetes mellutis
Form associated with a lifestyle of overeating, obesity, and inactivity
Characterized by insulin resistance
Cells of the body fail to adequately respond to insulin
Represents 90% to 95% of all diagnosed cases
Former names:
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